Bone Metabolic Markers in Bone Metastases

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.08). 02/1995; 121(9-10):542-8. DOI: 10.1007/BF01197767
Source: PubMed


The efficacy and cost/performance benefit of radionuclide bone scintigraphy in monitoring metastatic bone activity remain controversial. Recently developed bone metabolic markers are expected to play an additional role in the diagnosis of bone metastasis. We measured osteoclastic and osteoblastic markers in 267 patients with breast cancer (100 with bone metastasis), 38 patients with prostatic cancer (25 with bone metastasis), 50 patients with lung cancer (12 with bone metastasis) and 33 patients with miscellaneous cancers (13 with bone metastasis) and compared the values in the presence and absence of bone metastasis. Bone metabolic markers, both osteoclastic and osteoblastic, increased significantly in patients with bone metastasis. In breast cancer (bone metastasis is mostly of the mixed type), osteoclastic markers were good in detecting bone metastasis. In prostatic cancer (bone metastasis is mostly osteoblastic), osteoclastic and osteoblastic markers were equally effective in detecting bone metastasis. In lung cancer (bone metastasis is mostly osteolytic), osteoclastic markers were elevated preferentially in bone metastasis. Over all, osteoclastic markers were more sensitive in the diagnosis of bone metastasis, and among osteoclastic markers, serum pyridionoline-cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide was the most efficient in both specificity (91.0%) and sensitivity (48.6%) for detecting bone metastasis.

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    • "Prostate cancer (CaP) predominantly metastasizes to the bone, and bone metastases are the main cause of morbidity. While CaP metastases are usually osteoblastic in nature [1-3], there is an osteolytic component to the disease [4,5] which is manifested by increases in osteolytic markers in the serum and urine of patients with advanced CaP [6-8]. Increased bone resorption is also a prognostic factor for skeletal-related events in metastatic CaP [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: C4-2 prostate cancer (CaP) cells grown in mouse tibiae cause a mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic response with increases in osteoclast numbers and bone resorption. Administration of osteoprotegerin (OPG) blocks these increases, indicating the critical role of RANKL in osteolysis in this model. The objective of our study was to investigate whether RANKL expressed by tumor cells (human origin) directly stimulates osteolysis associated with the growth of these cells in bone or whether the increased osteolysis is caused by RANKL expressed by the host environment cells (murine origin). The relative contribution of tumor-vs. host-derived RANKL has been difficult to establish, even with human xenografts, because murine and human RANKL are both capable of stimulating osteolysis in mice, and the RANKL inhibitors used to date (OPG and RANK-Fc) inhibit human and murine RANKL. To address this question we used a neutralizing, antibody (huRANKL MAb), which specifically neutralizes the biological activities of human RANKL and thereby the contribution of C4-2 derived RANKL in this tibial injection model of experimental bone metastases. Administration of huRANKL MAb did not inhibit the osteolytic response of the bone to these cells, or affect the establishment and growth of the C4-2 tumors in this environment. In conclusion, our results suggest that in this model, murine RANKL and not the tumor-derived human RANKL is the mediator of the osteolytic reaction associated with C4-2 growth in bone. We hypothesize that C4-2 cells express other factor/s inducing host production of RANKL, thereby driving tumor-associated osteolysis.
    BMC Cancer 02/2007; 7(1):148. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-7-148 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, bone metabolic markers have been reported to be useful in diagnosing bone metastases [4,5]. Newly developed methods are able to quantitatively determine concentrations of collagen metabolites. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bone metastases are common in many types of cancer. As screening methods different imaging modalities are available. A new approach for the screening of osseous metastases represents the measurement of bone metabolic markers. Therefore aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the determination of bone metabolic markers aminoterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP, osteoblastic activity) and the carboxyterminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, osteoclastic activity) for the detection of bone metastases associated with other malignancies. Methods 88 patients aged 21 – 82 years with malignant tumors were prospectively studied. The serum concentrations of PINP and ICTP were measured and compared to the results of bone scintigraphy, radiological bone series, CT, MRI and clinical follow-up. Results Osseous metastases were found in 21 patients. 19 of them were correctly identified by bone scintigraphy (sensitivity: 90%). For bone metabolic markers results were as follows: ICTP sensitivity: 71%, specificity: 42%; PINP sensitivity: 24%, specificity: 96%. Conclusions As markers of bone metabolism PINP and ICTP showed low sensitivity and/or specificity for the detection of osseous metastases. The presented markers did not seem to be sufficient enough to identify patients with bone metastases or to replace established screening methods.
    BMC Nuclear Medicine 01/2005; 4(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1471-2385-4-3
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    • "Al-p and BAL, which are also bone formation markers, showed statistically significant elevation. This result is consistent with that of a smaller population in our previous report (Koizumi et al, 1995). The ROC curve analysis revealed that ICTP gave the best ROC curve, followed by fDPD and BAL curves. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ninety-one lung cancer patients were evaluated to determine the usefulness of bone metabolic markers in the diagnosis and follow-up of bone metastases and also to investigate their clinical usefulness as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy. Both bone resorption markers, ICTP and fDPD, and bone formation markers, Al-p, BAL, PICP and BGP, were evaluated in 47 patients with and 44 without bone metastasis. The patients with bone metastasis were classified according to the bone metastatic burden, and they were also separately classified into groups according to the course of the bone metastasis. ICTP, fDPD, Al-p and BAL were significantly elevated (P < 0.001) in patients with bone metastasis, but PICP and BGP were not. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of these markers revealed that ICTP was most highly correlated with the diagnosis of bone metastasis. The sensitivity of ICTP (71.4%) and fDPD (61.0%) were good with high specificity. T scores of ICTP, fDPD and BAL tended to be higher at higher grades of bone metastasis. T-scores of ICTP, fDPD and BAL were elevated in the newly diagnosed cases and progressed cases, but the T-scores of ICTP and fDPD in those cases were higher than that of BAL. In the follow-up study, ICTP was well correlated with uncontrolled or controlled bone metastasis. Thus, bone resorption markers, especially ICTP, could be a good indicator of the progression and multiplicity of disease, and it could help in the follow-up and in the monitoring of therapy for bone metastasis from lung cancer.
    British Journal of Cancer 09/1997; 76(6):760-4. DOI:10.1038/bjc.1997.458 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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