Article

Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 10/1995; 346(8982):1065-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(95)91742-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Atopic diseases constitute a common health problem. For infants at hereditary risk, prophylaxis of atopy has been sought in elimination diets and other preventive measures. We followed up healthy infants during their first year, and then at ages 1, 3, 5, 10, and 17 years to determine the effect on atopic disease of breastfeeding. Of the initial 236 infants, 150 completed the follow-up, which included history taking, physical examination, and laboratory tests for allergy. The subjects were divided into three groups: prolonged (> 6 months), intermediate (1-6 months), and short or no (< 1 month) breastfeeding. The prevalence of manifest atopy throughout follow-up was highest in the group who had little or no breastfeeding (p < 0.05, analysis of variance and covariance with repeated measures [ANOVA]). Prevalence of eczema at ages 1 and 3 years was lowest (p = 0.03, ANOVA) in the prolonged breastfeeding group, prevalence of food allergy was highest in the little or no groups (p = 0.02, ANOVA) at 1-3 years, and respiratory allergy was also most prevalent in the latter group (p = 0.01, ANOVA) having risen to 65% at 17 years of age. Prevalences in the prolonged, intermediate, and little or no groups at age 17 were 42 (95% CI 31-52)%, 36 (28-44)%, and 65 (56-74)% (p = 0.02, trend test) for atopy, respectively, and 8 (6-10)%, 23 (21-25)%, and 54 (52-56)% (p = 0.0001, trend test) for substantial atopy. We conclude that breastfeeding is prophylactic against atopic disease--including atopic eczema, food allergy, and respiratory allergy--throughout childhood and adolescence.

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    • "The risk for allergic disease is increased to about one in three if one first-degree relative (parent or sibling) is atopic and to 70% if both parents are atopic [4]. The pattern of allergy expression differs with age; with the greatest incidence of food allergy and atopic eczema peaking by 1 y of age, whereas asthma and allergic rhinitis continue to increase until around 15 y of age [5]. Many childhood allergies persist, with about 50% of childhood asthma sufferers and 80% of hay fever sufferers continuing to have symptoms into adulthood [6] [7]. "
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    Nutrition 03/2014; 30(11-12):1225–1241. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.015 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    • "The risk for allergic disease is increased to about one in three if one first-degree relative (parent or sibling) is atopic and to 70% if both parents are atopic [4]. The pattern of allergy expression differs with age; with the greatest incidence of food allergy and atopic eczema peaking by 1 y of age, whereas asthma and allergic rhinitis continue to increase until around 15 y of age [5]. Many childhood allergies persist, with about 50% of childhood asthma sufferers and 80% of hay fever sufferers continuing to have symptoms into adulthood [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate the relationship between maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation and development of atopic disorders in childhood. Methods We included studies published up to August 2011 which either assessed food-based maternal dietary interventions or examined associations between maternal dietary intake during pregnancy and/or lactation and allergic outcomes (eczema, asthma, hay fever and sensitization) in their children. Results We included 43 studies (over 40 000 children): 11 intervention studies (including seven RCTs), 27 prospective cohort studies, four retrospective cohort studies and one case-control study. In the RCTs, no significant difference was noted overall in the prevalence of eczema and asthma in the offspring of women on diets free from common food allergens during pregnancy. The prospective cohorts investigated a large number of potential associations, but reported few significant associations between maternal dietary intake and development of allergy. Maternal diets rich in fruits and vegetables, fish and foods containing vitamin D and ‘Mediterranean’ dietary patterns were among the few consistent associations with lower risk of allergic disease in their children. Foods associated with higher risk included vegetable oils and margarine, nuts and fast food. Conclusion This review did not find widespread or consistent links between mother’s dietary intake and atopic outcomes in their children. However, maternal consumption of ‘Mediterranean’ dietary patterns, diets rich in fruits and vegetables, fish and vitamin D containing foods were suggestive of benefit, requiring further evaluation.
    EAACI Food Allergy and Aaphylaxis Meeting (FAAM); 07/2013
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