Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 12/1995; 333(20):1360.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: A probiotic is a "live microbial food ingredients that, when ingested in sufficient quantities, exerts health benefits on the consumer". Probiotics exert their benefits through several mechanisms; they prevent colonization, cellular adhesion and invasion by pathogenic organisms, they have direct antimicrobial activity and they modulate the host immune response. The strongest evidence for the clinical effectiveness of probiotics has been in their use for the prevention of symptoms of lactose intolerance, treatment of acute diarrhea, attenuation of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects and the prevention and treatment of allergy manifestations. More research needs to be carried out to clarify conflicting findings on the use of probiotics for prevention of travelers' diarrhea, infections in children in daycare and dental caries, and elimination of nasal colonization with potentially pathogenic bacteria. Promising ongoing research is being conducted on the use of probiotics for the treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis, treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and prevention of relapse, treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, treatment of intestinal inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients, and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Finally, areas of future research include the use of probiotics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, prevention of cancer and the treatment of graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplant recipients.
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    ABSTRACT: Diarrhea is the most common illness associated with international tourism. We evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic preparation of nonviable Lactobacillus acidophilus (hereafter referred to as LA) for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Travelers were randomized to receive either LA or placebo twice daily from 1 day before their departure to 3 days after their return. On each day of the trip and the week following the return, travelers had to record the number and consistency of stools and their adherence to the treatment. Diarrhea was defined as > or =3 unformed stools in a 24-h period. From January 2001 to September 2004, a total of 174 subjects were randomized to each treatment group. Half of the travelers went to West Africa, and organized tours or backpacking were the most common modes of traveling. The incidence of diarrhea did not differ between the 2 groups; it was 61.4 cases per 100 person-months in the LA group (95% confidence interval [CI], 44.1-85.5) and 43.4 cases per 100 person-months in the placebo group (95% CI, 30.0-62.9) (P=.14). Adjustment for travel duration and other variables did not reveal any difference between the 2 groups (adjusted hazard ratios comparing the LA and placebo groups were 1.43 [95% CI, 0.87-2.36] in an intent-to-treat analysis and 1.38 [95% CI, 0.79-2.39] in an efficacy analysis). There was no beneficial effect of treatment with LA for the prevention of travelers' diarrhea. More studies are required to assess the efficacy of other specific probiotics (e.g., a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG preparation) for preventing traveler's diarrhea.
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