[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the improvement in survival from childhood cancer, late effects of therapy are becoming more apparent. Cardiac disease, one of these late effects, has a significant impact on the life of survivors of childhood cancers. Most survivors are followed by primary care doctors and adult subspecialists after they have graduated from pediatric centers. Since much of the cardiac toxicity of therapy occurs years off of therapy, it is important for these physicians to be aware of how to monitor survivors for the development of cardiac toxicities. In this paper we will discuss the incidence of cardiac disease during treatment and in survivors, what treatment modalities contribute to its development and modalities utilized to screen for cardiac disease. Recommendations for posttherapy monitoring will be emphasized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrhea is the most common illness associated with international tourism. We evaluated the efficacy of a probiotic preparation of nonviable Lactobacillus acidophilus (hereafter referred to as LA) for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Travelers were randomized to receive either LA or placebo twice daily from 1 day before their departure to 3 days after their return. On each day of the trip and the week following the return, travelers had to record the number and consistency of stools and their adherence to the treatment. Diarrhea was defined as > or =3 unformed stools in a 24-h period.
From January 2001 to September 2004, a total of 174 subjects were randomized to each treatment group. Half of the travelers went to West Africa, and organized tours or backpacking were the most common modes of traveling. The incidence of diarrhea did not differ between the 2 groups; it was 61.4 cases per 100 person-months in the LA group (95% confidence interval [CI], 44.1-85.5) and 43.4 cases per 100 person-months in the placebo group (95% CI, 30.0-62.9) (P=.14). Adjustment for travel duration and other variables did not reveal any difference between the 2 groups (adjusted hazard ratios comparing the LA and placebo groups were 1.43 [95% CI, 0.87-2.36] in an intent-to-treat analysis and 1.38 [95% CI, 0.79-2.39] in an efficacy analysis).
There was no beneficial effect of treatment with LA for the prevention of travelers' diarrhea. More studies are required to assess the efficacy of other specific probiotics (e.g., a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG preparation) for preventing traveler's diarrhea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Travelers' diarrhea is common. Between 8% and 50% of travelers develop diarrhea; incidence depends on the country visited. The attack rate is highest for travelers from a developed country who visit a developing country. Children are at particular risk. Travelers' diarrhea is usually acquired through ingestion of fecally contaminated food and water. Most cases are due to a bacterial pathogen, commonly, Escherichia coli, and occur within the first few days after arrival in a foreign country. More than 90% of episodes develop within the first 2 wk of initiation of travel. Dehydration is the most common complication. Water and electrolyte replenishment is important and can usually be accomplished with an oral rehydration solution. Judicious use of an antimotility agent and antimicrobial therapy reduces the duration and severity of diarrhea. Pretravel education on hygiene and on the safe selection of food items is important in minimizing episodes. Dukoraltrade mark (Aventis Pharma Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand) vaccine should be considered for travelers who are 2 y of age or older and who will be visiting an area associated with risk of infection due to enterotoxigenic E coli or Vibrio cholerae. Typhoid vaccine is recommended for travelers who will be visiting areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.
Advances in Therapy 07/2006; 23(4):519-27. DOI:10.1007/BF02850040 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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