Thiol dependence of nitric oxide synthase.
ABSTRACT Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) require NADPH and tetrahydrobiopterin (H4biopterin) to convert L-arginine to L-citrulline. The additional requirement and effects of thiols during purification and activity assays of NOS are unclear; for example, glutathione (GSH) has been reported to stimulate or, in the presence of catalase, to inhibit enzyme activity. We therefore studied the effects of different thiols, thiol reagents, antioxidants, and H4biopterin-regenerating systems on purified porcine cerebellum NOS. GSH in the presence of catalase did not inhibit NOS. In contrast, GSH and, to a lesser degree, several other thiols consistently stimulated total L-arginine turnover up to 4-fold. In the presence of GSH, Vmax of NOS was increased, the usually observed loss of activity during the 15 min assay was less dramatic, and the apparent S0.5 value for H4biopterin decreased. Stabilization of NOS activity by GSH was augmented by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), indicating that, at least in part, GSH acted by reductive protection of NOS protein thiols. Consistent with this, four different protein thiol reagents abolished NOS activity. In other experiments, specific allosteric binding was excluded as a potential mechanism of GSH regulation of NOS. In addition, GSH may affect NOS kinetics by recycling or preventing the autoxidation of H4biopterin. In support of this, the non-thiol reductant ascorbate and dihydropteridine reductase mimicked the effects of GSH on NOS kinetics, but not on NOS stability. Thus, NOS activity depends on both H4biopterin and the reduced state of essential protein thiols.
SourceAvailable from: Norbert Weiss
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ABSTRACT: Ascorbate (Asc) has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and thereby improve endothelial function in patients showing signs of endothelial dysfunction. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a co-factor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) which may easily become oxidized to the inactive form dihydrobiopterin (BH2). Asc may increase NO bioavailability by a number of mechanisms involving BH4 and eNOS. Asc increases BH4 bioavailability by either reducing oxidized BH4 or preventing BH4 from becoming oxidized in the first place. Asc could also increase NO bioavailability in a BH4-independent manner by increasing eNOS activity by changing its phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation status or by upregulating eNOS expression. In this review, we discuss the putative mechanisms by which Asc may increase NO bioavailability through its interactions with BH4 and eNOS.Nitric Oxide 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2013.12.001 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We examined the mechanism of coronary artery spasm related to oxidant stress with aging in senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30)-deficient mice because SMP30 decreases with aging and SMP30 knockout (KO) mice show a short life with increased oxidant stress. METHODS: To examine the effect of SMP30 on coronary artery vasomotor tone, we measured the endothelium-dependent [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] response of isolated, pressurized coronary arteries from SMP30 KO and wild-type (WT) mice (n=10 each). RESULTS: In SMP30 KO mice, 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction occurred, which altered vasodilation with dithiothreitol, a thiol-reducing agent. In WT mice, 5-HT-induced vasodilation occurred. Administration of 5-HT from the aortic sinus induced a coronary artery spasm in SMP30 KO mice, which was prevented by the intravenous administration of Y-27632, rho-kinase inhibitor. The fluorescence level of monochlorobimane in coronary arteries, which covalently labels the reduced total thiols, decreased in SMP30 KO mice, but reverted to a level comparable with that of WT mice on treatment with Y-27632. From these results, SMP30 provides protection against coronary artery spasm. CONCLUSION: Chronic oxidant stress associated with aging plays an important role in coronary artery spasm related to thiol oxidation and rho-kinase signaling.Coronary artery disease 01/2013; 24(2). DOI:10.1097/MCA.0b013e32835c8f96 · 1.30 Impact Factor