Generation of tumor-specific T lymphocytes for the treatment of posttransplant lymphoma.
ABSTRACT The incidence of lymphoproliferative disease, including B-cell lymphomas (BCL) in patients who have undergone heart or combined heart-lung transplants, has been reported to be as high as 15%. The majority of these tumors contain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA and regress when immunosuppressive agents are discontinued. This tumor regression is thought to be secondary to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) reactive to EBV-infected cells whose function is impaired in patients receiving immunosuppressive agents. We hypothesize that EBV-CTL expanded in the absence of these agents may demonstrate an antitumor effect against an EBV-expressing human BCL in vitro and in vivo.
An EBV-expressing BCL from a heart transplant recipient was isolated and expanded in culture. EBV-CTL were generated by stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes with irradiated autologous tumor cells in low-dose interleukin-2. Autologous BCL, HLA-mismatched BCL, lymphokine-activated killer target cell line (Daudi), and the natural killer target cell line (K562) were used in a standard 4-hour cytotoxicity assay using 51CrO4 after 7, 14, and 28 days of stimulation. There was significant percent specific lysis of autologous BCL targets (78%) at an effector-to-target ratio as low as 20:1 as compared with control cells. EBV-CTL were then adoptively transferred into SCID mice (provided by Duke University Vivarium) that had been engrafted with autologous BCL 7 days before. There was a significant survival advantage to those mice engrafted with EBV-CTL as compared with control cells.
The results indicate that ex vivo expansion of EBV-CTL in the absence of immunosuppressive agents results in a population that has significant antitumor activity. This strategy may be useful in the generation of EBV-CTL that might be effective antitumor agents in transplant recipients with EBV-associated lymphomas.
- Springer Seminars in Immunopathology 02/1998; 20(3-4):455-91. DOI:10.1007/BF00838055 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We reported earlier that a nontoxic form of anthrax toxin was capable of delivering a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope in vivo, such that a specific CTL response was primed against the epitope. The epitope, of bacterial origin, was fused to an N-terminal fragment (LFn) from the lethal-factor component of the toxin, and the fusion protein was injected, together with the protective antigen (PA) component, into BALB/c mice. Here we report that PA plus LFn is capable of delivering a different epitope--OVA(257-264) from ovalbumin. Delivery was accomplished in a different mouse haplotype, H-2Kb and occurred in vitro as well as in vivo. An OVA(257-264)-specific CTL clone, GA-4, recognized EL-4 cells treated in vitro with PA plus as little as 30 fmol of the LFn-OVA(257-264) fusion protein. PA mutants attenuated in toxin self-assembly or translocation were inactive, implying that the role of PA in epitope delivery is the same as that in toxin action. Also, we showed that OVA(257-264)-specific CTL could be induced to proliferate by incubation with splenocytes treated with PA plus LFn-OVA(257-264). These findings imply that PA-LFn may serve as a general delivery vehicle for CTL epitopes in vivo and as a safe, efficient tool for the ex vivo expansion of patient-derived CTL for use in adoptive immunotherapy.Infection and Immunity 03/1998; 66(2):615-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL against human gp100 were isolated from HLA-A*0201/K(b) (A2/K(b))-transgenic mice immunized with recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC-gp100). These CTL strongly responded to the gp100(154-162) epitope, in the context of both the chimeric A2/K(b) and the wild-type HLA-A*0201- molecule, and efficiently lysed human HLA-A*0201(+), gp100(+) melanoma cells in vitro. The capacity of the CTL to eradicate these tumors in vivo was analyzed in A2/K(b)-transgenic transgenic mice that had received a tumorigenic dose of human uveal melanoma cells in the anterior chamber of the eye. This immune-privileged site offered the unique opportunity to graft xenogeneic tumors into immunocompetent A2/K(b)-transgenic mice, a host in which they otherwise would not grow. Importantly, systemic (i.v.) administration of the A2/K(b)-transgenic gp100(154-162)-specific CTL resulted in rapid elimination of the intraocular uveal melanomas, indicating that anti-tumor CTL are capable of homing to the eye and exerting their tumoricidal effector function. Flow cytometry analysis of ocular cell suspensions with HLA-A*0201-gp100(154-162) tetrameric complexes confirmed the homing of adoptively transferred CTL. Therefore, the immune-privileged state of the eye permitted the outgrowth of xenogeneic uveal melanoma cells, but did not protect these tumors against adoptive immunotherapy with highly potent anti-tumor CTL. These data constitute the first direct indication that immunotherapy of human uveal melanoma may be feasible.The Journal of Immunology 01/2001; 165(12):7308-15. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.165.12.7308 · 5.36 Impact Factor