Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of CD4+ T cells down-regulates the expression of CD28: effect on T cell activation and cytokine production.

Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98121, USA.
Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 01/1996; 77(3):262-70. DOI: 10.1006/clin.1995.1152
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) results in dysregulation of normal T cell function. To study the effects of HIV-1 at the cellular level, primary T cell lines were generated by alloantigen stimulation of CD4+ T cells collected from peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected donors. Using Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes (EBV-LCL) as a source of alloantigen, the T cell lines were expanded in vitro for 7 weeks. Uninfected T cell lines were cultured in parallel. Virus was inducible from the infected lines with stimulation, and complete infection was achieved after 4-7 weeks depending on the line. The down-modulation of CD28 expression correlated with virus replication and spread. Furthermore, CD28 mRNA was not inducible in the infected lines after stimulation with alloantigen. Loss of CD28 correlated with reduced responsiveness to costimulation with a monoclonal antibody to CD28 following similar engagement of the CD3 protein. In contrast, activation with alloantigen was not affected. HIV-1 infection and down-modulation of CD28 did not alter the relative levels of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-4 mRNA. Production of the various cytokine mRNAs following alloantigen stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4Ig and thus remained under the regulation of CD80 and CD86 expressed on the EBV-LCL. Taken together, our data suggest that dysregulation of normal T cell function associated with HIV-1 infection may result in part form the loss of CD28 expression.

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