Demonstration of induction of erythrocyte inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in Ribavirin-treated patients using a high performance liquid chromatography linked method.
ABSTRACT The activity of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH: EC 18.104.22.168) was measured in erythrocyte lysates using a non-radiolabelled method linked to reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). The mean activity in erythrocytes from healthy controls using this sensitive method was extremely low (mean 85 pmol/h per mg protein, range 4-183). The elevated erythrocyte IMPDH activity reported previously in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency was confirmed (mean 234 pmol/h per mg protein). Erythrocyte IMPDH activity of patients with other disorders of purine metabolism, or with leukaemias and lymphomas, showed no marked difference from controls, except in one instance--an immunodeficient child with purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, treated with Ribavirin, where a 30-fold increase in activity was found (2670 pmol/h per mg protein). Investigation of erythrocyte IMPDH in other immunodeficient children with normal PNP activity demonstrated that this grossly elevated erythrocyte activity was attributable to induction of IMPDH by Ribavirin therapy.
Article: 4-Pyridone-3-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleoside Triphosphate (4PyTP), a Novel NAD Metabolite Accumulating in Erythrocytes of Uremic Children: A Biomarker for a Toxic NAD Analogue in Other Tissues?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have identified a novel nucleotide, 4-pyridone 3/5-carboxamide ribonucleoside triphosphate (4PyTP), which accumulates in human erythrocytes during renal failure. Using plasma and erythrocyte extracts obtained from children with chronic renal failure we show that the concentration of 4PyTP is increased, as well as other soluble NAD(+) metabolites (nicotinamide, N(1)-methylnicotinamide and 4Py-riboside) and the major nicotinamide metabolite N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY), with increasing degrees of renal failure. We noted that 2PY concentration was highest in the plasma of haemodialysis patients, while 4PyTP was highest in erythrocytes of children undergoing peritoneal dialysis: its concentration correlated closely with 4Py-riboside, an authentic precursor of 4PyTP, in the plasma. In the dialysis patients, GTP concentration was elevated: similar accumulation was noted previously, as a paradoxical effect in erythrocytes during treatment with immunosuppressants such as ribavirin and mycophenolate mofetil, which deplete GTP through inhibition of IMP dehydrogenase in nucleated cells such as lymphocytes. We predict that 4Py-riboside and 4Py-nucleotides bind to this enzyme and alter its activity. The enzymes that regenerate NAD(+) from nicotinamide riboside also convert the drugs tiazofurin and benzamide riboside into NAD(+) analogues that inhibit IMP dehydrogenase more effectively than the related ribosides: we therefore propose that the accumulation of 4PyTP in erythrocytes during renal failure is a marker for the accumulation of a related toxic NAD(+) analogue that inhibits IMP dehydrogenase in other cells.Toxins. 06/2011; 3(6):520-37.