Suicide among female adolescents: characteristics and comparison with males in the age group 13 to 22 years.
ABSTRACT To characterize female suicides (n = 19) in an unselected nationwide youth suicide population aged 13 to 22 years (n = 116) and to compare them with male suicides with respect to variables indicating psychopathology and psychosocial functioning.
The data were collected in a psychological autopsy study of all suicides (N = 1,397) in Finland during a 12-month period. Data collection included interviews of next of kin and professionals and information from records after the suicide.
Two thirds (68%) of the female victims had suffered from a mood disorder, and 73% had communicated their suicidal intent. Half (47%) of the female subjects had been in psychiatric care at some point in their lives, and 42% had been hospitalized. Compared with young male suicides, the young female victims more often had made previous suicide attempts (63% versus 30%), received more often a diagnosis of major depression (37% versus 14%), and had more often been in psychiatric care (47% versus 21%) during the year preceding the suicide. The females were more often incapable of working, and their psychosocial impairment was more severe during the final week. Alcohol abuse was almost as common among the female as the male victims (21% versus 26%).
The results suggest that young females who commit suicide may have suffered from more severe psychopathology than young male victims. Substance abuse seems to be a major factor also in female suicides. Preventive efforts within psychiatric care are likely to reach a higher proportion of the young females than males at high risk for suicide.
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ABSTRACT: In light of the increased suicide rate in Korea, it has become important for researchers to examine the various factors associated with it. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the difference between suicide attempters and completers in terms of the suicide methods used and the lethality of these methods. In addition, we investigated certain demographic factors that are associated with the choice of suicide method by evaluating their lethality. The most frequently used methods of suicide were different in the two groups of attempters and completers. Drug poisoning was the most frequent method in suicide attempters, whereas hanging was the most common method among suicide completers. Drug poisoning, stabbing, and other chemical poisoning were evaluated as relatively non-lethal compared to other suicide methods. While about 70.0% of the suicide attempters used relatively non-lethal methods, almost all suicide completers used lethal methods, based on our classification of the lethality of the method. In terms of gender, males used more lethal methods of suicide. Suicide completers' choice of suicide methods are different from those of suicide attempters and tend to be more lethal. Interventions to restrict access to more lethal suicidal methods could be a useful strategy to reduce the suicide rates in South Korea.International Journal of Mental Health Systems 01/2014; 8(1):54. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Available information on risk for suicide completion in females is limited and often extrapolated from studies conducted in males. However, the validity of extending to females risk factors identified among male suicide cases is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical and behavioral risk factors for suicide among female depressed patients and compare them to similar factors among male depressed patients. We identified 201 suicide completers (160 male and 41 female) who died during an episode of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cases were compared to 127 living patients with MDD (88 male and 39 female). All subjects were characterized for Axis I and II diagnoses using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders according to the DSM-IV, as well as behavioral and temperament dimensions using proxy-based interviews. The primary outcome was measures of impulsive and impulsive-aggressive behaviors. Compared to controls, male, but not female suicide cases had higher levels of impulsive aggression (P < .05). Nonimpulsive aggression differentiated both female (P < .05) and male (P < .01) suicide cases from controls. However, nonimpulsive aggression and impulsive aggression were correlated constructs in males (r = 0.297; P < .001), yet uncorrelated among females (r = 0.121; P = .390). Established risk factors for suicide, such as alcohol and substance dependence, cluster B disorders, and elevated hostility and aggression, were replicated in the pooled-sex analyses, and, though not statistically significant in discriminating between suicide cases and controls by gender, maintained strong group differences. Males and females share many risk factors for suicide in MDD, yet alcohol dependence is much more specific though less sensitive among depressed females. Nonimpulsive aggression is part of a diathesis for suicide in females, which is distinct from the well-characterized impulsive aggression that is consistently reported in a portion of male suicide cases.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 12/2013; 74(12):1209-16. · 5.81 Impact Factor
Article: Child and Adolescent Suicide[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Suicide is rare in childhood and early adolescence, and becomes more frequent with increasing age. The latest mean worldwide annual rates of suicide per 100 000 were 0.5 for females and 0.9 for males among 5–14-year-olds, and 12.0 for females and 14.2 for males among 15–24-year-olds, respectively. In most countries, males outnumber females in youth suicide statistics. Although the rates vary between countries, suicide is one of the commonest causes of death among young people. Due to the growing risk for suicide with increasing age, adolescents are the main target of suicide prevention. Reportedly, less than half of young people who have committed suicide had received psychiatric care, and thus broad prevention strategies are needed in healthcare and social services. Primary care clinicians are key professionals in recognizing youth at risk for suicide. This article reviews recent population-based psychological autopsy studies of youth suicides and selected follow-up studies of clinical populations and suicide attempters, analyzing risk factors for youth suicides. As youth suicides are rare, research on risk factors for youth suicidal ideation and attempted suicide is also briefly reviewed. The relationship between psychiatric disorders and adolescent suicide is now well established. Mood disorders, substance abuse and prior suicide attempts are strongly related with youth suicides. Factors related to family adversity, social alienation and precipitating problems also contribute to the risk of suicide. The main target of effective prevention of youth suicide is to reduce suicide risk factors. Recognition and effective treatment of psychiatric disorders, e.g. depression, are essential in preventing child and adolescent suicides. Research on the treatment of diagnosed depressive disorders and of those with suicidal behavior is reviewed. In the treatment of youth depression, psychosocial treatments have proved to be useful and efficacious. Although studies on the effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are limited in number, evidence supports their use as first-line antidepressant medication in youth depression. Available evidence suggests that various treatment modalities are useful in the treatment of suicidal youths, e.g. cognitive behavioral therapy and specialized emergency room interventions. Much of the decrease in suicide ideation and suicide attempts seems to be attributable to nonspecific elements in treatment. For high-risk youth, providing continuity of care is a challenge, since they are often noncompliant and commonly drop out or terminate their treatment prematurely. Developing efficacious treatments for suicidal children and adolescents would offer better possibilities to prevent suicides.Paediatric Drugs 01/2003; 5(4). · 1.72 Impact Factor