Suicide among female adolescents: characteristics and comparison with males in the age group 13 to 22 years.
ABSTRACT To characterize female suicides (n = 19) in an unselected nationwide youth suicide population aged 13 to 22 years (n = 116) and to compare them with male suicides with respect to variables indicating psychopathology and psychosocial functioning.
The data were collected in a psychological autopsy study of all suicides (N = 1,397) in Finland during a 12-month period. Data collection included interviews of next of kin and professionals and information from records after the suicide.
Two thirds (68%) of the female victims had suffered from a mood disorder, and 73% had communicated their suicidal intent. Half (47%) of the female subjects had been in psychiatric care at some point in their lives, and 42% had been hospitalized. Compared with young male suicides, the young female victims more often had made previous suicide attempts (63% versus 30%), received more often a diagnosis of major depression (37% versus 14%), and had more often been in psychiatric care (47% versus 21%) during the year preceding the suicide. The females were more often incapable of working, and their psychosocial impairment was more severe during the final week. Alcohol abuse was almost as common among the female as the male victims (21% versus 26%).
The results suggest that young females who commit suicide may have suffered from more severe psychopathology than young male victims. Substance abuse seems to be a major factor also in female suicides. Preventive efforts within psychiatric care are likely to reach a higher proportion of the young females than males at high risk for suicide.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Suicide is the leading cause of death in most armies during peace-time. The recent dramatic rise in suicides in the US Army further focuses attention on the causes of suicidal behavior in the military. METHODS: This study investigated demographic characteristics, psychological profile and stress-related risk factors associated with suicide attempts in Israelis aged 18-21 years, who served in the Army in 2009. Soldiers who attempted suicide (N=60) were compared to soldiers treated by a mental health professional, but reported no suicidal behavior (N=58), and to controls (N=50). RESULTS: Suicide attempters had lower socioeconomic status and less cognitive ability compared with treated soldiers and untreated control soldiers. Only 25% of the suicide attempters had received mental healthcare prior to the attempt. The majority of the attempts were non-lethal (86.2%), and only 5.2% used firearms. Attempters had more previous suicide attempts (37.9%) and deliberate selfharm incidents (19.3%), compared to almost no such behaviors in the other two groups. Following the suicide attempt, 77% were diagnosed with moderate to severe mental disorders, 44.8% personality disorders and 8.6% mood disorders. Attempters reported higher levels of general stress compared to their peers in the other two groups. Being away from home and obeying authority were especially more stressful in attempters. CONCLUSIONS: Young soldiers are less prone to seek mental health assistance, despite suffering from higher levels of stress. Screening is required to detect soldiers at risk for suicidal behavior and preventive intervention will require active outreach.Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2013; 150(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.04.009 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Social networks may protect depressed elders against suicidal behavior. However, conflict in important relationships may undermine the sense of social support, potentially negating the protective effects. Thus, we investigated the role of chronic interpersonal difficulties and perceived social support in depressed elders with and without suicidal thoughts and attempts. 106 individuals aged 60 years and older participated in this cross-sectional, case-control study. They were placed in three groups: suicidal depressed, non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed. Following a detailed clinical characterization, we assessed perceived social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List), and chronic interpersonal difficulties (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems). Using general linear models, we explored the relationship between suicidal thoughts/attempts, social support, and chronic interpersonal difficulties. We also examined whether lower perceived social support explained the relationship between chronic interpersonal difficulties and suicidal thoughts/attempts. Suicidal depressed elders reported the lowest levels of perceived social support (belonging, tangible support, and self-esteem) and higher levels of chronic interpersonal difficulties (struggle against others and interpersonal hostility), compared to both non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elders. The relationship between chronic interpersonal difficulties and suicidal behavior was partially explained by low perceived social support. The experience of strong affects, interpersonal struggle, and hostility in relationships may undermine the sense of social support in depressed elders, possibly leading them to contemplate or attempt suicide. Depressed elders with a history of interpersonal difficulties need to be carefully monitored for suicidal behavior.International Psychogeriatrics 12/2009; 22(3):445-54. DOI:10.1017/S1041610209991463 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined suicide ideation, attempts, and subsequent mental health service among a sample of 948 youth from substance abuse treatment facilities across the United States. Youth were surveyed at intake and every 3 months for a 1-year period. Thirty percent of youth reported ideating in at least one interview, and 12% reported attempting suicide; almost half of all youth reported receiving outpatient mental health treatment at least once, and close to one-third of all youth reported being on prescription drugs for an emotional or behavioral problem. Higher levels of conduct disorder symptoms were associated with both ideation and attempts, while higher levels of depressive symptoms and being female were associated with ideation only. Among all youth, older youth were less likely to receive outpatient and prescription drug treatment, and Black and Hispanic youth were less likely to receive prescription drug treatment than White youth. Among youth who reported ideating, those with conduct disorder were less likely to receive prescription drug treatment 3 months later. These findings emphasize a high prevalence of suicide risk behavior in substance abuse treatment programs and provide insight into the specialized treatment youth in substance abuse treatment at risk for suicide currently receive.Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 01/2009; 22(4):524-32. DOI:10.1037/a0012969 · 2.09 Impact Factor