Primary hypothyroidism is a known complication of nephropathic cystinosis, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by renal failure as well as deterioration of other organs. The drug cysteamine depletes lysosomes of cystine and helps preserve renal function and enhance growth in cystinosis patients. To determine whether cysteamine also prevents hypothyroidism, we retrospectively divided 101 patients into group A (n = 28; well treated), group B (n = 26; partially treated), and group C (n = 47; poorly treated). Lifetable analysis indicated a significantly higher probability of remaining free of L-T4 replacement in group A vs. group B (P = 0.09) or group C (P = 0.004). Cysteamine therapy also improved mean height z-scores (-2.17 in group A, -3.04 in group B, and -4.07 in group C) and reduced the bone age deficit (i.e. chronological age minus bone age) by 1.5 yr for every 10 yr of previous cysteamine therapy. We conclude that in addition to its other salutary effects, oral cysteamine therapy helps prevent hypothyroidism and enhances growth in patients with nephropathic cystinosis.
"Despite its side effects and four times daily dosing regimen, cysteamine remains the cornerstone of treatment for cystinosis and adequate administration of cysteamine significantly reduces the rate of progression towards end-stage renal disease, and postpones or even prevents the occurrence of extrarenal complications.26–29 Hypothyroidism, myopathy, pulmonary dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus (caused by pancreas insufficiency) occur less frequently in cystinosis patients who have been treated with cysteamine for a prolonged period of time.27,30 Further, while children with cystinosis show more pronounced growth retardation than children with other renal diseases, adequate treatment with cysteamine significantly improves growth parameters.29,31,32 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive inherited lysosomal storage disease. It is characterized by generalized proximal tubular dysfunction known as renal Fanconi syndrome and causes end-stage renal disease by the age of about 10 years if left untreated. Extrarenal organs are also affected, including the thyroid gland, gonads, pancreas, liver, muscle, and brain. Treatment consists of administration of cysteamine, resulting in depletion of cystine that is trapped inside the lysosomes. Since cysteamine has a short half-life, it should be administered every 6 hours. Recently, a new delayed-release formulation was marketed, that should be administered every 12 hours. The first studies comparing both cysteamine formulations show comparable results regarding white blood cell cystine depletion (which serves as a measure for cystine accumulation in the body), while a slightly lower daily dose of cysteamine can be used.
International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 07/2014; 7:297-302. DOI:10.2147/IJNRD.S37603
"It helps in the depletion of cystine from lysosomes through different transporter mechanisms (Butler and Zatz 1984); however, it does not completely stop the progression of the disease and does not restore the lost renal function. Early diagnosis and management of nephropathic cystinosis is of utmost importance to delay renal deterioration (Gahl et al. 1990) and other systems' affection (Kimonis et al. 1995) and, hence, improves the patient's survival and quality of life. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Nephropathic cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene, encoding for cystinosin, a carrier protein transporting cystine out of lysosomes. Its deficiency leads to cystine accumulation and cell damage in multiple organs, especially in the kidney. In this study, we aimed to provide the first report describing the mutational spectrum of Egyptian patients with nephropathic cystinosis and their genotype-phenotype correlation.
Fifteen Egyptian patients from 13 unrelated families with infantile nephropathic cystinosis were evaluated clinically, biochemically, and genetically. Screening for the common 57-kb deletion was performed by standard multiplex PCR, followed by direct sequencing of the ten coding exons, exon-intron interfaces, and promoter region.
None of the 15 Egyptian patients had the 57-kb deletion. Twenty-seven mutant alleles and 12 pathogenic mutations were detected including six novel mutations: two frameshift (c.260_261delTT; p.F87SfsX36, c.1032delCinsTG; p.F345CfsX19), one nonsense (c.734G>A; p.W245fsX), two missense (c.1084G>A; pG362R, c.560A>G; p.K187R), and one intronic splicing mutation (IVS3+5g>t). A novel promoter region mutation (1-593-41C>T) seemed to be detected but was excluded as a pathogenic mutation by quantitative real-time PCR analysis.
This study could be the basis for future genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of patients with nephropathic cystinosis in Egyptian and surrounding populations. The screening for the 57-kb deletion is not recommended anymore outside its geographical distribution, especially in the region of the Middle East. A common Middle Eastern mutation (c.681G>A; E227E) was pointed out and discussed.
"Cysteine exits the lysosome via the cysteine transporter, while the disulfide exits the lysosome via a yet unknown cationic amino acid transporter, thereby bypassing the defective cystinosin (Gahl et al 2002). Cysteamine has been proven efficient in preserving renal function (Markello et al 1993) and postponing extra-renal complications (Kimonis et al 1995; Gahl et al 2007). Side effects of oral cysteamine administration mainly consist of gastro-intestinal complaints (Dohil et al 2003; Dohil et al 2005) and disagreeable breath and sweat odor (Besouw et al 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disease caused by intralysosomal cystine accumulation, treated with cysteamine. Recently, new adverse effects of cysteamine were reported. Skin biopsies showed microvascular proliferation (angioendotheliomatosis). To examine the mechanism of angioendotheliomatosis associated with cysteamine toxicity, we examined the effect of cysteamine on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC).
After cysteamine exposure (range 0-3.0 mM) during 24 h, cell viability was measured using water soluble tetrazolium salt-1 (WST-1) in both control HDMVEC and fibroblasts. Cell proliferation and apoptosis rate were measured in HDMVEC by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and caspase 3 and caspase 7 activity, respectively. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) was measured in HDMVEC after cysteamine exposure of 0, 0.1 or 1.0 mM. Medium and cysteamine were refreshed every 6 h to mimic the in vivo situation. Next, cell viability in HDMVEC was measured after 24 h of GSH exposure (range 0-10.0 mM).
HDMVEC viability and proliferation increased after cysteamine exposure 0.03-3.0 mM (p < 0.01) and 0.03-1.0 mM (p = 0.01) respectively; cell viability in fibroblasts was not affected by incubation with cysteamine. Apoptosis remained unaffected by incubation with 0-1.0 mM cysteamine, 3.0 mM caused increased apoptosis. Intracellular GSH was significantly increased after incubation with cysteamine 0.1 mM (p = 0.02) and 1.0 mM (p < 0.01). HDMVEC viability increased after exposure to GSH 1.0-5.0 mM (p < 0.01).
Cysteamine concentrations, similar to those described in plasma of cystinosis patients, stimulate HDMVEC viability and proliferation and increase intracellular GSH content. We postulate that this mechanism might underlie angioendotheliomatosis induced by cysteamine.
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