Cloning of a cDNA for the type II iodothyronine deiodinase.
ABSTRACT Three types of iodothyronine deiodinase have been identified in vertebrate tissues. cDNAs for the types I and III have been cloned and shown to contain an inframe TGA that codes for selenocysteine at the active site of the enzyme. We now report the cloning of a cDNA for a type II deiodinase using a reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction strategy and RNA obtained from Rana catesbeiana tissues. This cDNA (RC5'DII) manifests limited but significant homology with other deiodinase cDNAs and contains a conserved in-frame TGA codon. Injection of capped in vitro synthesized transcripts of the cDNA into Xenopus laevis oocytes results in the induction of deiodinase activity with characteristics typical of a type II deiodinase. The levels of RC5'DII transcripts in R. catesbeiana tadpole tail and liver mRNA at stages XII and XXIII correspond well with that of type II deiodinase activity but not that of the type III activity in these tissues. These findings indicate that the amphibian type II 5'-deiodinase is a structurally unique member of the family of selenocysteine-containing deiodinases.
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. In order to bind to its nuclear receptor and regulate gene transcription thyroxine needs to be activated in the brain. This activation occurs via conversion of thyroxine to T3, which is catalyzed by the type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) in glial cells, in astrocytes, and tanycytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus. We discuss how thyroid hormone affects glial cell function followed by an overview on the fine-tuned regulation of T3 generation by D2 in different glial subtypes. Recent evidence on the direct paracrine impact of glial D2 on neuronal gene expression underlines the importance of glial-neuronal interaction in thyroid hormone regulation as a major regulatory pathway in the brain in health and disease.Journal of thyroid research. 01/2011; 2011:215718.
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ABSTRACT: Gold(I)-based drugs have been used successfully for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for several years. Although the exact mechanism of action of these gold(I) drugs for RA has not been clearly established, the interaction of these compounds with mammalian enzymes has been extensively studied. In this paper, we describe the interaction of therapeutic gold(I) compounds with mammalian proteins that contain cysteine (Cys) and selenocysteine (Sec) residues. Owing to the higher affinity of gold(I) towards sulfur and selenium, gold(I) drugs rapidly react with the activated cysteine or selenocysteine residues of the enzymes to form protein-gold(I)-thiolate or protein-gold(I)-selenolate complexes. The formation of stable gold(I)-thiolate/selenolate complexes generally lead to inhibition of the enzyme activity. The gold-thiolate/selenolate complexes undergo extensive ligand exchange reactions with other nucleophiles and such ligand exchange reactions alter the inhibitory effects of gold(i) complexes. Therefore, the effect of gold(I) compounds on the enzymatic activity of cysteine- or selenocysteine-containing proteins may play important roles in RA. The interaction of gold(I) compounds with different enzymes and the biochemical mechanism underlying the inhibition of enzymatic activities may have broad medicinal implications for the treatment of RA.Dalton Transactions 02/2011; 40(10):2099-111. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iodothyronine deiodinases are important mediators of thyroid hormone (TH) action. They are present in tissues throughout the body where they catalyse 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) production and degradation via, respectively, outer and inner ring deiodination. Three different types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2 and D3) have been identified in vertebrates from fish to mammals. They share several common characteristics, including a selenocysteine residue in their catalytic centre, but show also some type-specific differences. These specific characteristics seem very well conserved for D2 and D3, while D1 shows more evolutionary diversity related to its Km, 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil sensitivity and dependence on dithiothreitol as a cofactor in vitro. The three deiodinase types have an impact on systemic T(3) levels and they all contribute directly or indirectly to intracellular T(3) availability in different tissues. The relative contribution of each of them, however, varies amongst species, developmental stages and tissues. This is especially true for amphibians, where the impact of D1 may be minimal. D2 and D3 expression and activity respond to thyroid status in an opposite and conserved way, while the response of D1 is variable, especially in fish. Recently, a number of deiodinases have been cloned from lower chordates. Both urochordates and cephalochordates possess selenodeiodinases, although they cannot be classified in one of the three vertebrate types. In addition, the cephalochordate amphioxus also expresses a non-selenodeiodinase. Finally, deiodinase-like sequences have been identified in the genome of non-deuterostome organisms, suggesting that deiodination of externally derived THs may even be functionally relevant in a wide variety of invertebrates.Journal of Endocrinology 07/2012; 215(2):189-206. · 4.06 Impact Factor