Whole-body protein turnover in preterm appropriate for gestational age and small for gestational age infants: comparison of [15N]glycine and [1-(13)C]leucine administered simultaneously.
ABSTRACT Measurements of whole-body protein turnover in preterm infants have been made using different stable isotope methods. Large variation in results has been found, which could be due to different clinical conditions and/or the use of different tracers. We studied 14 appropriate for gestational age and nine small for gestational age orally fed preterm infants using [15N]glycine and [1-(13)C]leucine simultaneously, which allowed us to make a comparison of commonly used methods to calculate whole-body protein turnover. Whole-body protein turnover was calculated from 15N enrichment in urinary ammonia and urea after [15N]-glycine administration and from the 13C enrichment in expired CO2 after administration of [1-(13)C]leucine. Enrichment of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid after [1-(13)C]leucine constant infusion was measured as a direct parameter of whole-body protein turnover. Group means for whole-body protein turnover using [15N]glycine or [1-(13)C]leucine ranged from 10 to 14 g.kg-1.d-1, except when using the end product method that assumes a correlation between leucine oxidation and total nitrogen excretion. We found very low 15N enrichment of urinary urea in the majority of small for gestational age infants. These infants also had a lower nitrogen excretion in urine and oxidized less leucine. Nitrogen balance was higher in small for gestational age infants (416 +/- 25 mg.kg-1.d-1) compared with appropriate for gestational age infants (374 +/- 41 mg.kg-1.d-1, p = 0.003). [15N]Glycine does not seem to exchange its label with the body nitrogen pool to a significant degree and is therefore not always suitable as a carrier for 15N in protein turnover studies in premature infants.
- SourceAvailable from: Anton J M Wagenmakers[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most stable-isotope methods to evaluate whole body protein metabolism in patients are invasive and difficult to use in children. In this study protein metabolism was evaluated with the non-invasive [15N]glycine single oral dose method in critically ill children and the value of the method is discussed. [15N]glycine (100mg) was given orally to children (mean age 5.5 years; range 0.6-15.5 years) with meningococcal septic shock (MSS, n = 8), pneumonia (n = 5), and to healthy, fed and post-absorptive children (n = 10). Urine was collected during 9h, total amount of NH(3), labelled NH(3) and nitrogen were measured, and protein turnover, synthesis and breakdown were calculated using urinary NH(3) as end-product. Mean protein turnover in children with MSS, pneumonia and fed and post-absorptive healthy children was 0.63+/-0.13, 0.38+/-0.10, 0.28+/-0.03 and 0.28+/-0.02g N/kg/9h, respectively. Mean protein synthesis was 0.55+/-0.12, 0.29+/-0.09, 0.18+/-0.02, 0.20+/-0.02g N/kg/9h, respectively. Mean protein breakdown was 0.56+/-0.14, 0.28+/-0.12, 0.08+/-0.03, 0.28+/-0.02g N/kg/9h, respectively. Protein turnover, synthesis and breakdown were significantly increased in MSS patients compared to fed healthy children (P <0.01) and post-absorptive children (P <0.05). Protein turnover, protein synthesis, protein breakdown were significantly correlated with disease severity and body temperature (P <0.05). Results of whole body protein metabolism measured with the [15N]glycine single oral dose method in children with MSS and in healthy children were in line with expectations based on results obtained in earlier reports and with different methods.Clinical Nutrition 04/2004; 23(2):153-60. · 3.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increasingly, neonatologists are realizing that current feeding practices for preterm infants are insufficient to produce reasonable rates of growth, and earlier and larger quantities of both parenteral and enteral feeding should be provided to these infants. Unfortunately, there is very little outcome data to recommend any particular nutritional strategy to achieve better growth. Instead, the rationale for feeding regimens in many nurseries has been quite variably extrapolated from animal data and human studies conducted in gestationally more mature and/or stable neonates. Additionally, there are no well-controlled, prospective studies that validate any nutritional regimen for the very preterm and or sick, unstable neonate. The goal of this review is to present available data to help define the risks and benefits of early parenteral and enteral nutrition, particularly in very preterm neonates, concluding with a more aggressive approach to feeding these infants than has been customary practice.Seminars in Neonatology 11/2001; 6(5):403-15.
Article: [Nutrition in the neonatal period].Archives de Pédiatrie 02/1996; 3 Suppl 1:189s-190s. · 0.36 Impact Factor