Before the discovery of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcers were thought to be caused by excessive acid secretion. Duodenal ulcer patients have more parietal cells than controls. In addition, they cannot suppress their acid secretion when the gastric lumen is empty or acidic. These changes, plus an increase in the release of gastrin were attributed to a paucity of the inhibitory peptide somatostatin in the gastric mucosa. It has now been established that the paucity of somatostatin and the failure to suppress acid secretion are actually the result of H. pylori infection. In patients without duodenal ulcers H. pylori infection is often associated with decreased acid secretion. This occurs on first infection and also later because H. pylori gastritis predisposes to gastric atrophy.
"This association may imply that people who are buying drugs for acid related disorders may in fact be suffering from mental stress or depressive disorders. A helicobacter pylori infection seems to cause a failure to suppress acid secretion (Calam, 1995), and there exists evidence associating mental stress and an increased production of stomach acid (see e.g. Holtmann et al. (1989) and Holtmann et al. (1990)), thus worsening the effect of a helicobacter pylori infection . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a large literature showing that unemployment has a negative effect on mental health, but little evidence exists on how mental illness affects the unemployeds’ chances of re-employment or the risk of labour market exit. We study how purchase of pharmaceutical products for severe mental illnesses during unemployment affects re- employment and labour market exit probabilities. Within the framework of a multivariate duration model we apply the ‘timing-of-events’ method, which explicitly makes use of the information that pharmaceutical treatment can begin at different points of time during an unemployment spell. In the absence of instrumental variables this method allows for causal inference in presence of unobserved heterogeneity, but at the cost of strong assumptions. The basis for our analysis is state-of-the-art register-based data, which gives insight on the timing, type, and volume of drug purchase as well as labour market histories for a random sample of the Danish population. We find a significant and strong negative effect of periods with drug treatment on the employment chances. During the treatment with drugs, the job-finding rate is reduced substantially relative to what it would have been in absence of a drug treated mental illness. Importantly, our results not only show that drug treated mental illness prolongs the unemployment duration, but it also increases the labour market exit rate.
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