There are striking similarities between human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) infection and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): both may present with malar rash, fever, arthropathy, myalgia, cytopenia, hypocomplementemia, anti-DNA, and antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Therefore, it is difficult at times to differentiate HPV-B19 infection from SLE presentation or exacerbation. We report 4 cases of HPV-B19 infection mimicking SLE and review 10 other reported cases, all of whom were women. The similarity to a typical SLE presentation was indeed striking: most patients presented with rash, arthropathy, myalgia, fever, and positive ANA. In some cases, HPV-B19 infection seemed to exacerbate SLE rather then resemble it, and differentiation was difficult. Nearly all patients improved within several weeks. However, a few patients had symptoms and laboratory abnormalities lasting more than 6 months. The possibility of HPV-B19 infection should be entertained in patients presenting with SLE-like features.
"Although their clinical and laboratory features did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) , their SLE-like features, including butterfly-shaped erythema and polyarthralgia, strongly suggested an increased immunological response. In addition, hypocomplementemia in Case 1, which occurs in both SLE and HPV-B19 infection , indicated the activation of the classical complement pathway caused by the increase in immune complexes. Therefore, in our cases, such enhanced immunity was more likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of the symptoms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two cases of women in their thirties with past histories of atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis developed a low grade fever, followed by a butterfly-shaped erythema, swelling of their fingers, and polyarthralgia. Despite such symptoms that overlap with those of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the diagnostic criteria for SLE were not fulfilled. Due to positive results for human parvovirus B19 (HPV-B19) IgM antibodies in the serum, diagnoses of HPV-B19 infection were made in both cases. Although acetaminophen failed to improve their deteriorating symptoms, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), loxoprofen, completely removed the symptoms immediately after the administration. In those cases, since the patients were predisposed to atopic disorders, an increased immunological response based on the lymphocyte hypersensitivity was likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The immunomodulatory property of NSAID was thought to repress such lymphocyte activity and thus provided a rapid and sustained remission of the disease.
Case Reports in Medicine 04/2012; 2012(5):703281. DOI:10.1155/2012/703281
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the phospholipid specificity and immunoglobulin isotype of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies in patients with acute parvovirus B19 infection.
Specificity of aPL and isotype distribution in the negatively charged phospholipids, cardiolipin and phosphatidyl serine, and in the neutral phospholipid, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, were measured in the sera of patients with acute parvovirus B19 infections (n = 12), in those with other acute viral infections (n = 10), and in those with syphilis (n = 15) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The dependence of anticardiolipin (aCL) binding on the presence of beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI) as a binding cofactor was assessed in these same groups, and was compared with sera from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (n = 11) with raised aCL antibody reactivity.
Antibodies against any of the 3 phospholipids were found in all 3 groups of patients with infections (B19 in 11 of 12 patients, other viral infections in 8 of 10 patients, and syphilis in 14 of 15 patients). B19 patients' sera contained predominantly IgG antibodies against the negatively charged phospholipids, cardiolipin and phosphatidyl serine, and differed in their specificity and isotype distribution from those found in the other 2 patient groups. B19-associated aCL increased their binding to antigen in the presence of beta 2-GPI as a binding cofactor, similar to aCL found in SLE patients, but unlike antibodies from patients with other viral infections or from those with syphilis.
The results show the remarkable similarity in specificity of aPL antibodies between B19-infected patients and SLE patients, and raise the question of whether parvovirus infection may be a trigger for the development of aPL antibodies in autoimmune diseases.
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