Shape, F-actin, and surface morphology changes during chemotactic peptide-induced polarity in human neutrophils.
ABSTRACT The exposure of human neutrophils to uniform concentrations of chemoattractants, such as N-formyl peptides, induces morphological cell polarization. In this study we report the temporal sequence of changes in cell shape, F-actin, and cell surface morphology during cellular polarization induced by N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) in human neutrophils in suspension.
Neutrophil shape changes induced by 10(-8) M fMLP were observed with DIC microscopy. Size and cellular granularity were analyzed by flow cytometry measuring their forward and side scattered light. To visualize F-actin distribution, neutrophils were labeled with the fluorescence probe FITC-phalloidin, and were examined with fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell surface morphology was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The stimulation of round-smooth neutrophils with nanomolar concentrations (10(-8) M) of fMLP in suspension induced a temporal sequence of morphological changes during cell polarization, characterized by 1) increase in size as determined by forward angle scattered light, 2) rapid redistribution of F-actin from a diffuse cytoplasmic localization to the cell periphery, and 3) rapid reorganization of cell surface morphological features, with accumulation of plasma membrane in the front of polar cells. Four cell shapes were identified with SEM after stimulation of round-smooth neutrophils: round-ridged, round-ruffled, nonpolar ruffled, and polar cells. These cell shapes were correlated with a cortical localization, focal aggregates, and multipolar distribution of F-actin. In polar neutrophils, F-actin became concentrated in the front of the cell.
These findings show the relation between reorganization of the microfilamentous cytoskeleton and modifications in cell shape and surface features during cell polarization induced after fMLP activation in neutrophils. This approach offers a powerful tool for further analysis of receptor distribution in polarized, motile neutrophils.
Article: Anaplasma phagocytophilum utilizes multiple host evasion mechanisms to thwart NADPH oxidase-mediated killing during neutrophil infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of human anaplasmosis, is a bacterial pathogen that specifically colonizes neutrophils. Neutrophils utilize the NADPH oxidase complex to generate superoxide (O(2)(-)) and initiate oxidative killing of microorganisms. A. phagocytophilum's unique tropism for neutrophils, however, indicates that it subverts and/or avoids oxidative killing. We therefore examined the effects of A. phagocytophilum infection on neutrophil NADPH oxidase assembly and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Following neutrophil binding, Anaplasma invasion requires at least 240 min. During its prolonged association with the neutrophil plasma membrane, A. phagocytophilum stimulates NADPH oxidase assembly, as indicated by increased cytochrome b(558) mobilization to the membrane, as well as colocalization of Rac and p22(phox). This initial stimulation taxes the host neutrophil's finite oxidase reserves, as demonstrated by time- and bacterial-dose-dependent decreases in secondary activation by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This stimulation is modest, however, and does not diminish oxidase stores to nearly the extent that Escherichia coli, serum-opsonized zymosan, FMLP, or PMA do. Despite the apparent activation of NADPH oxidase, no change in ROS-dependent chemiluminescence is observed upon the addition of A. phagocytophilum to neutrophils, indicating that the bacterium may scavenge exogenous O(2)(-). Indeed, A. phagocytophilum rapidly detoxifies O(2)(-) in a cell-free system. Once internalized, the bacterium resides within a protective vacuole that excludes p22(phox) and gp91(phox). Thus, A. phagocytophilum employs at least two strategies to protect itself from neutrophil NADPH oxidase-mediated killing.Infection and Immunity 09/2004; 72(8):4772-83. · 4.16 Impact Factor