Herbimycin A induces the 20 S proteasome- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases
ABSTRACT Herbimycin A is an ansamycin antibiotic isolated as an agent that reverses morphological transformation induced by v-src. Although herbimycin A is widely used as a tool for inhibiting multiple tyrosine protein kinases and tyrosine kinase-activated signal transduction, its mechanism of action is not well defined and includes a decrease in both tyrosine kinase protein levels and activity (Uehara, Y., Murakami, Y., Sugimoto, Y., and Mizuno, S. (1989) Cancer Res. 49, 780-785). We now show that herbimycin A induces a profound decrease in the total cellular activity of transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, such as insulin-like growth factor, insulin, and epidermal growth factor receptors. A substantial proportion of the in vivo inhibition could be explained by an increase in the rate of degradation. The enhanced degradation of insulin-like growth factor-insulin receptor was prevented by inhibitors of the 20S proteasome, whereas neither lysosomotropic agents nor general serine- and cysteine-protease inhibitors were active in preventing receptor degradation induced by herbimycin A. Moreover, in a temperature-sensitive mutant cell line defective in the E1-catalyzed activation of ubiquitin, herbimycin A treatment at the restrictive temperature did not result in the degradation of insulin receptor. These results suggest that herbimycin A represents a novel class of drug that targets the degradation of tyrosine kinases by the 20S proteasome. The ubiquitin dependence of this process indicates that this degradation of tyrosine kinases might involve the 20S proteasome as the proteolytic core of the ubiquitin-dependent 26S protease.
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- "Cells degrade proteins through two major systems, the proteasome and the lysosome. The proteasome is involved in the degradation of most cytosolic and nuclear proteins as well as some membrane proteins    and removes misfolded or misaggregated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum . The lysosome degrades membrane proteins and extracellular materials that enter the cell via endocytosis . "
ABSTRACT: Human organic anion transporter hOAT1 plays a critical role in the body disposition of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs including anti-HIV therapeutics, anti-tumor drugs, antibiotics, anti-hypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 has two GXXXG motifs in its transmembrane domains 2 and 5, a motif linked to the protein processing and oligomerization of other proteins. In the current study, we substituted glycine of these GXXXG motifs with alanine and evaluated the effect of such mutations on the expression and function of hOAT1. Mutations of GXXXG motif in the transmembrane domain 2 resulted in mutants G144A and G148A, both of which had no transport activity due to complete loss in the surface and total cell expression of the transporter protein. Treatment of G144A- and G148A-expressing cells with proteasomal inhibitor resulted in the recovery of ER-resident immature form of hOAT1, but not its surface-resident mature form, whereas treatment of these cells with lysosomal inhibitor had no effect on the expression of the mutant transporters. Mutations of GXXXG motif in the transmembrane domain 5 resulted in mutants G223A and G227A, among which only G227 had dramatic reduction of transport activity due to dramatic loss in the surface and total cell expression of the transporter. The reduction in the surface expression of G227 was consistent with the decrease in maximum transport velocity Vmax. Treatment of G227A-expressing cells with proteasomal inhibitor or lysosomal inhibitor resulted in partial recovery of both the immature form and the mature form of hOAT1 in the total cell extracts. However, such partial recovery of the mature form in total cell extracts did not lead to the partial recovery of surface expression and function of the transporter. Our data suggest that the GXXXG motifs in transmembrane domains 2 and 5 play critical roles in the stability of hOAT1.01/2011; 2(1):1-7.
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- "GA-induced inhibition of Hsp90 up-regulates NDRG1 protein and inhibits its phosphorylation To determine if NDRG1 is a client of Hsp90, we first examined the consequence of inhibiting Hsp90 activity on the constitutive levels of NDRG1 in two HCC cell lines, Huh-7 and Hep3B. It is well documented that inhibiting the intrinsic ATPase activity of Hsp90 impairs the stability of its client proteins and leads to their degradation  . However inhibiting Hsp90 with the ansamycin GA or its derivative, 17-DMAG, led to an unexpected increase of total NDRG1 protein. "
ABSTRACT: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NRDG1) is a stress-induced protein whose putative function is suppression of tumor metastasis. A recent proteonomic study showed NDRG1 interacts with the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). From their reported association, we investigated if NDRG1 is dependent on Hsp90 for its stability and is therefore a yet unidentified Hsp90 client protein. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous NDRG1 and Hsp90 physically associate in hepatocellular cancer cell lines. However, geldanamycin (GA)-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 did not disrupt their interaction or result in NDRG1 protein destabilization. On the contrary, inhibition of Hsp90 led to a transcriptional increase of NDRG1 protein which was associated with cell growth arrest. We also observed that GA inhibited the phosphorylation of NDRG1 by targeting its regulating kinases, serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3beta). We demonstrate that in the presence of GA, GSK3beta protein and activity were decreased thus indicating that Hsp90 is necessary for GSK3beta stability. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NDRG1 is not a classic client protein but interacts with Hsp90 and is still dually regulated by Hsp90 at a transcriptional and post-translational level. Finally, we suggest for the first time GSK3beta as a new client protein of Hsp90.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2009; 1793(10):1597-603. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.08.002 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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- "Our data strongly indicates that these two proteolytic pathways are involved in NCT degradation. The proteasome primarily degrades cytosolic and nuclear proteins as well as misfolded or aggregated proteins (Jensen et al. 1995; Sepp-Lorenzino et al. 1995; Ward et al. 1995; Kopito 1997), whereas the lysosome degrades long-lived membrane proteins and extracellular proteins (Ward et al. 1995). It is possible that misfolded NCT is degraded by the proteasome, whereast the lysosome could be responsible for regulating NCT turnover. "
ABSTRACT: The glycoprotein nicastrin (NCT) is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex, a high molecular weight complex which also contains the presenilin proteins, Aph-1 and Pen-2. The gamma-secretase complex is not only involved in APP processing but also in the processing of an increasing number of other type I integral membrane proteins. As the largest subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, NCT plays a crucial role in its activation. Considerable information exists on the distribution, structure and function of NCT; however, little is known of its proteolysis. The present study is aimed at exploring the molecular mechanism of NCT degradation. We found that either proteasomal or lysosomal inhibition can significantly increase the levels of both endogenous and exogenous NCT in various cell lines, and the effect of these inhibitions on NCT was time- and dose-dependent. Immunofluorescent microscopic analysis revealed that NCT accumulates in the ER and Golgi apparatus after proteasomal inhibition, while lysosomal inhibition leads to the accumulation of NCT in the lysosomal apparatus. Co-immunoprecipitation can pull down both NCT and ubiquitin. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NCT degradation involves both the proteasome and the lysosome.Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2007; 101(4):982-92. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04449.x · 4.24 Impact Factor