[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular interactions and catabolic activities of mycorrhizal root associated non-sporulating bacteria were investigated in a simplified phytoremediation simulation involving a woody plant species. Mycorrhizal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings pre-colonised by Suillus bovinus or Paxillus involutus were grown in forest humus containing microcosms amended with petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contaminated soil. Fungal hyphae of both species, emanating from mycorrhizal roots, colonised the PHC contaminated soil over a 16-week period and dense long-lived patches of S. bovinus hyphae formed on the PHC contaminated soil. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a microbial biofilm at the PHC soil-fungal interface composed of differentiated pseudoparenchymous patch hyphae supporting a morphologically diverse bacterial population. Certain non-sporulating bacterial isolates closely associated with the S. bovinus patch hyphae or P. involutus‘web’ hyphae from the PHC soil harboured similar sized mega-plasmids (approx. 150 kb). Isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens from the ‘patch’ mycorrhizospheres represented different biovars, displayed similar REP-PCR genomic fingerprints, grew on e.g. m-toluate and m-xylene as sole carbon sources, cleaved catechol, and harboured plasmid-borne catabolic marker genes, xylE and xylMA, involved in degradation of mono-aromatics. The plasmids were transmissible in vitro, and Pseudomonas putida transconjugants retained a similar catabolic profile. The identification of microbial biofilms containing catabolic bacteria in the external mycorrhizosphere is discussed in relation to both phytoremediation mechanisms and normal efficient nutrient mobilisation from highly lignin-rich forest soils.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The numbers of oil-utilizing bacteria in several samples of clean and oil-polluted soils counted on vitamin-containing media were severalfold higher than the numbers counted on vitamin-free media. Colonies that grew on a medium containing a vitamin mixture were tested for growth on the same medium lacking any vitamins. More than 90% of the total colonies failed to grow. The remaining 10% grew, yet their growth was enhanced, when vitamins were added. The predominant oil-utilizing bacteria in one of the test desert soil samples were various strains of Cellulomonas flavigena and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Minor organisms belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Arthrobacter. Two vitamin-requiring biovars of C. flavigena and R. erythropolis were selected for further study. Their growth on n-octadecane and phenanthrene as sole sources of carbon and energy as well as their potential for hydrocarbon consumption were enhanced by added vitamins, e.g. folic acid, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, biotin and others. In a field experiment, it was confirmed that vitamin fertilization of an oil-polluted sand sample enhanced the biodegradation of constituent hydrocarbons of that sample.
Microbiological Research 04/2001; 155(4):301-7. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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