An approach to prepare microparticles of uniform size.
ABSTRACT A novel emulsification method which employs a glass membrane of controlled pore size was adopted to prepare various types of microparticles. The microparticles thus obtained were uniform in size and the procedure proved applicable to a wide variety of microencapsulation processes. Furthermore, the particle size could be controlled by selecting preparative conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Particulate systems that could deliver drug specifically to duodenum have not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to develop a novel duodenum-specific drug delivery system based on thiolated chitosan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate maleate (HPMCAM) for the duodenal ulcer application. Berberine hydrochloride was used as model drug. Thiolated chitosan was synthesized and further used for the preparation of mucoadhesive microspheres. HPMCAM, which is insoluble below pH 3.0 was synthesized and used for the coating of thiolated chitosan microspheres (TCM). The resulting thiolated chitosan immobilized on chitosan was 268.21 ± 18 μmol/g. In vitro mucoadhesion study showed that the mucoadhesion property of TCM was better than that of chitosan microspheres. Morphological observation showed that the HPMCAM coating would maintain its integrity in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) for 2 h and dissolved quickly in simulated pathological duodenal fluid (SPDF; pH 3.3). In vitro drug release studies showed that only 4.75% of the drug was released in SGF for 2 h, while nearly 90% of the drug was released within 6 h after transferring into SPDF.Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 01/2011; 37(7):868-74. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to develop a duodenum-specific drug delivery system on the basis of a pH-sensitive coating and a mucoadhesive inner core for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the ulcer duodenum. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate maleate (HPMCAM) was used as the pH-sensitive material, which dissolves around pH 3.0. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with furazolidone (FZD-ad-MS) were prepared by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method using Carbopol 971NP as the mucoadhesive polymer. The prepared pH-sensitive coated mucoadhesive microspheres (AM-coated-MS) were characterized in regards to particle size, drug loading efficiency, morphological change, drug stability, drug release and in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. The particle size was 160.97 ± 47.24 μm and 336.44 ± 129.34 μm, and the drug content was 42.33 ± 3.43% and 10.96 ± 1.29% for FZD-ad-MS and AM-coated-MS, respectively. The morphological changes in different pH media were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HPMCAM coating improved the stability of the FZD-ad-MS and these particles were expected to remain intact until their arrival in the duodenum. The drug release was extremely suppressed at pH 1.2 for AM-coated-MS, but increased at pH 4.0 after regeneration of FZD-ad-MS. In addition, FZD-ad-MS exhibited excellent anti-H. pylori activity in vitro. Thus, the HPMCAM-coated microspheres developed in this study hold great promise for use as a duodenum-specific drug delivery system for H. pylori clearance.Archives of Pharmacal Research 05/2012; 35(5):839-50. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using second generation mucoadhesives may enhance targeting antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the stomach for the treatment of peptic ulcer. The aim of this research was to prepare and characterise ethylcellulose/chitosan microspheres containing clarithromycin with their surfaces functionalised with concanavalin A to produce a floating-mucoadhesive formulation. The microspheres were prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Particle size, surface morphology, in vitro buoyancy profile, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and release kinetics of the particles were determined. Lectin was conjugated to the microsphere surface using two-stage carbodiimide activation and confirmed using FTIR, fluorescence studies and zeta potential measurements. Conjugation ranged from 11 - 15μg Con A / mg microspheres which represents over 56 % efficiency although there was some drug loss during the conjugation process. Conjugation did not have a significant effect on the buoyancy and release of drug from the microspheres using a mucus diffusion model with 53 % and 40 % of drug released from unconjugated and conjugated microspheres within 12h. Conjugation improved mucoadhesion and interaction with porcine gastric mucin compared to unconjugated microspheres. The buoyancy and improved mucoadhesion of the microspheres provides potential for delivery of CMN and other drugs to the stomach.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 05/2014; · 3.99 Impact Factor