Twenty-five-year followup of the Israeli High-Risk Study: current and lifetime psychopathology.
ABSTRACT Current and lifetime psychopathology was assessed in 50 Israeli children of parents with schizophrenia who were either of kibbutz families and raised collectively with the help of child care workers, or of urban families and raised by their parents. Index subjects were compared with 50 matched control children of healthy parents by means of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Israel. Subjects were evaluated in adulthood at a mean age of 31 years; schizophrenia was found exclusively among children of ill parents, and no effect of town or kibbutz rearing on risk for schizophrenia was observed. Major affective illness was more common among kibbutz index subjects. Affective symptomatology observed in some index parents was evenly distributed among town and kibbutz parents and was not related to the diagnosis of affective disorders in at-risk children. Current adult functioning was similar between town-and kibbutz-raised subjects (and in general reflected good adjustment); an excess of personality disorders was found among index subjects. The present findings support the concept that both familial and environmental factors operate in the expression of psychopathology.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Offspring of parents with severe mental illness (SMI; schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder) are at an increased risk of developing mental illness. We aimed to quantify the risk of mental disorders in offspring and determine whether increased risk extends beyond the disorder present in the parent. Method: Meta-analyses of absolute and relative rates of mental disorders in offspring of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression in family high-risk studies published by December 2012. Results: We included 33 studies with 3863 offspring of parents with SMI and 3158 control offspring. Offspring of parents with SMI had a 32% probability of developing SMI (95% CI: 24%-42%) by adulthood (age >20). This risk was more than twice that of control offspring (risk ratio [RR] 2.52; 95% CI 2.08-3.06, P < .001). High-risk offspring had a significantly increased rate of the disorder present in the parent (RR = 3.59; 95% CI: 2.57-5.02, P < .001) and of other types of SMI (RR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.48-2.49, P < .001). The risk of mood disorders was significantly increased among offspring of parents with schizophrenia (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.02-2.58; P = .042). The risk of schizophrenia was significantly increased in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (RR = 6.42; 95% CI: 2.20-18.78, P < .001) but not among offspring of parents with depression (RR = 1.71; 95% CI: 0.19-15.16, P = .631). Conclusions: Offspring of parents with SMI are at increased risk for a range of psychiatric disorders and one third of them may develop a SMI by early adulthood.Schizophrenia Bulletin 08/2013; DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt114 · 8.61 Impact Factor
Social Work in Mental Health 04/2014; 12(3):280-301. DOI:10.1080/15332985.2014.881457
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim To provide normative values for the healthy ethnic Chinese Singaporean population and a large sample of patients with schizophrenia for the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP). Participants Data were collected on 1011 healthy ethnic Chinese and 654 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, all between 21 and 55 years of age. Methods Data were stratified by age and gender. The effects of age, gender and education were explored in patients and controls. Performance indices were assessed in their ability to predict group inclusion. Controls’ performance was compared with that reported in a US sample. Results Performance was affected by age, sex, and education, with youth, male sex and higher education providing a performance advantage. Patients’ performance was lower than controls’ by more than 1 standard deviation, with the 3-digit d′ score most significantly discriminating between controls and patients. The effects of socio-demographic factors on performance were in line with those conducted in the US and previously reported in the literature. Conclusions This is the largest norming study ever conducted on the CPT-IP. It will enable investigators and clinicians to select appropriate indices to assess severity of cognitive decline and/or evaluate cognitive remediation therapy outcomes after taking into account age, gender and education factors.Schizophrenia Research 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.04.016 · 4.43 Impact Factor