Article

Twenty-five-year Followup of the Israeli High-risk Study: Current and Lifetime Psychopathology

NIH/NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Schizophrenia Bulletin (Impact Factor: 8.61). 02/1995; 21(2):183-92. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/21.2.183
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Current and lifetime psychopathology was assessed in 50 Israeli children of parents with schizophrenia who were either of kibbutz families and raised collectively with the help of child care workers, or of urban families and raised by their parents. Index subjects were compared with 50 matched control children of healthy parents by means of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Israel. Subjects were evaluated in adulthood at a mean age of 31 years; schizophrenia was found exclusively among children of ill parents, and no effect of town or kibbutz rearing on risk for schizophrenia was observed. Major affective illness was more common among kibbutz index subjects. Affective symptomatology observed in some index parents was evenly distributed among town and kibbutz parents and was not related to the diagnosis of affective disorders in at-risk children. Current adult functioning was similar between town-and kibbutz-raised subjects (and in general reflected good adjustment); an excess of personality disorders was found among index subjects. The present findings support the concept that both familial and environmental factors operate in the expression of psychopathology.

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    • "S.L. Hans et al. parents with nonschizophrenic disorders (Erlenmeyer- Kimling et al. 1995). In one sample, offspring of parents with schizophrenia appeared to be at increased risk for affective disorder at age 25 (Mirsky et al. 1985) but not by age 31 (Ingraham et al. 1995). Typically, these studies rely on diagnostic information from a single proband parent , even though nonproband parents mated with parents with schizophrenia may also be likely to have a mental disorder that could contribute to an offspring's disorder (Quinton et al. 1993). "
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin 02/2004; 30(2):303-15. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a007080 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    • "This means focusing on patients who have manifest symptoms and impaired functioning and demonstrate a substantially increased risk of psychosis onset Traditional or Genetic High-Risk Model. A range of studies recruited individuals with a family history of psychotic disorder (usually schizophrenia) during early childhood and monitored them over timeā€”in some studies for up to 35 years (Nagler 1985; Fish et al. 1992; Cannon and Mednick 1993; Erlenmeyer-Kimling et al. 1995, 1997; Ingraham et al. 1995; Hodges et al. 1999; Johnstone et al. 2001). Selection of subjects for these studies on the basis of a crude measure of genetic risk (family history) restricts the generalizability of any findings to the early detection of schizophrenia, as most cases do not in fact have a first degree relative with the disorder (McGuffin et al. 1984; Kendler 1986; Asamow 1988). "
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin 02/2003; 29(4):771-90. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a007046 · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    • "1981). Other extrafamilial environments may be less harmful: the kibbutz communal rearing environment showed no differential effect on lifetime psychosis outcomes (Ingraham et al. 1995), and high-risk children raised by relatives had a more favorable outcome than did their peers raised by mothers with schizophrenia (Mednick et al. 1984). "
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