Organic Solvent Exposure May Increase the Risk of Glomerular Nephropathies with Chronic Renal Failure
Several studies have suggested that exposure to organic solvents is associated with glomerular nephropathies (GN), but this relationship remains controversial.
A case-control study of 298 biopsy-proven cases and 298 hospital controls, matched for year of birth, sex, origin, and place of residence, was conducted between 1989 and 1991 in five hospitals in the Paris area: 82 cases of membranous glomerulopathy were included; 100, nephrotic syndrome with either minimal change nephropathy or focal and segmental hyalinosis (MCN/FSH); and 116, IgA nephropathy (IgA N). Subjects were interviewed about their lifelong occupational and non-occupational activities. A 'blind' assessment of type, level, and duration of solvent exposure was carried out by two industrial hygienists. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) phenotypes were determined.
Among males, a clear association, which was not explained by social class, was observed between chronic renal failure and high exposure to solvents for both MCN/FSH (OR = 7.7, 95% CI: 1.4-41.6) and IgA N (OR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.0-11.8). The odds ratios increased with duration of exposure. No relationship was observed between such exposure and GN cases with normal renal function. No evidence was found that the HLA phenotype plays a role in the association between solvent exposure and the disease.
These results support the hypothesis of a causal relationship between high solvent exposure, which concerned 15% of the males in this study, and the development of GN with chronic renal failure.
Available from: cdc.gov
- "Several large case-control studies have investigated the relationship of organic solvents and incident renal disease [Steenland et al., 1990; Nuyts et al., 1995; Stengel et al., 1995]. ORs ranged from 1.2 to 1.5. "
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ABSTRACT: Deaths due to occupational disease and injury place a heavy burden on society in terms of economic costs and human suffering.
We estimate the annual deaths due to selected diseases for which an occupational association is reasonably well established and quantifiable, by calculation of attributable fractions (AFs), with full documentation; the deaths due to occupational injury are then added to derive an estimated number of annual deaths due to occupation.
Using 1997 US mortality data, the estimated annual burden of occupational disease mortality resulting from selected respiratory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and hepatitis is 49,000, with a range from 26,000 to 72,000. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates there are about 6,200 work-related injury deaths annually. Adding disease and injury data, we estimate that there are a total of 55,200 US deaths annually resulting from occupational disease or injury (range 32,200-78,200).
Our estimate is in the range reported by previous investigators, although we have restricted ourselves more than others to only those diseases with well-established occupational etiology, biasing our estimates conservatively. The underlying assumptions and data used to generate the estimates are well documented, so our estimates may be updated as new data emerges on occupational risks and exposed populations, providing an advantage over previous studies. We estimate that occupational deaths are the 8th leading cause of death in the US, after diabetes (64,751) but ahead of suicide (30,575), and greater than the annual number of motor vehicle deaths per year (43,501).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine 05/2003; 43(5):461-82. DOI:10.1002/ajim.10216 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Environmental/industrial exposure to heavy metals, light hydrocarbons, pesticides and silicon-containing compounds all have
been associated with the development and/or progression of renal failure. Occupational exposure to heavy metals, more particularly
lead, cadmium and mercury has been linked with the development of acute or chronic renal failure. Indeed, the current literature
contains a growing body of information linking solvent exposure with renal injury. To what extent exposure to environmental/occupational
contaminants such as pesticides play either a causal or contributive role in the development of chronic renal failure is less
clear. Recently reported observations suggest either a primary or secondary role of silicon-containing compounds in the development
of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive rapid progressive glomerulonephritis and Wegener’s granulomatosis. Such observations
deserve further confirmation as do recent studies suggesting a particular sensitivity of the diabetic kidney for the damaging
effects of certain occupational exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 06/1996; 38(5):463-4. DOI:10.1097/00043764-199605000-00002 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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