Collapsin-induced growth cone collapse mediated by an intracellular protein related to UNC-33.
ABSTRACT Collapsin, a member of the newly recognized semaphorin family, contributes to axonal pathfinding during neural development by inhibiting growth cone extension. The mechanism of collapsin action is poorly understood. Here we use a Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system to identify molecules involved in collapsin signalling, because several experiments have raised the possibility that heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins might participate in these events. A collapsin response mediator protein of relative molecular mass (M(r)) 62K (CRMP-62) required for collapsin-induced inward currents in X. laevis oocytes is isolated. CRMP-62 shares homology with UNC-33, a nematode neuronal protein required for appropriately directed axonal extension. CRMP-62 is localized exclusively in the developing chick nervous system. Introduction of anti-CRMP-62 antibodies into dorsal root ganglion neurons blocks collapsin-induced growth cone collapse. CRMP-62 appears to be an intracellular component of a signalling cascade initiated by an unidentified transmembrane collapsin-binding protein.
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ABSTRACT: Assemblies of huntingtin (HTT) fragments with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts are a pathological hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD). The molecular mechanisms by which these structures are formed and cause neuronal dysfunction and toxicity are poorly understood. Here, we utilized available gene expression data sets of selected brain regions of HD patients and controls for systematic interaction network filtering in order to predict disease-relevant, brain region-specific HTT interaction partners. Starting from a large protein-protein interaction (PPI) data set, a step-by-step computational filtering strategy facilitated the generation of a focused PPI network that directly or indirectly connects 13 proteins potentially dysregulated in HD with the disease protein HTT. This network enabled the discovery of the neuron-specific protein CRMP1 that targets aggregation-prone, N-terminal HTT fragments and suppresses their spontaneous self-assembly into proteotoxic structures in various models of HD. Experimental validation indicates that our network filtering procedure provides a simple but powerful strategy to identify disease-relevant proteins that influence misfolding and aggregation of polyQ disease proteins. © 2015 Stroedicke et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.Genome Research 04/2015; 25(5). DOI:10.1101/gr.182444.114 · 13.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phenylketonuria (PKU), if not detected and treated in newborns, causes severe neurological dysfunction and cognitive and behavioral deficiencies. Despite the biochemical characterization of PKU, the molecular mechanisms underlying PKU-associated brain dysfunction remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the pathogenesis of this neurological damage by analyzing protein expression profiles in brain tissue of BTBR-PahEnu2 mice (a mouse model of PKU). We compared the cerebral protein expression of homozygous PKU mice with that of their heterozygous counterparts using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis, and identified 21 differentially expressed proteins, 4 of which were overexpressed and 17 underexpressed. An in silico bioinformatic approach indicated that protein underexpression was related to neuronal differentiation and dendritic growth, and to such neurological disorders as progressive motor neuropathy and movement disorder. Moreover, functional annotation analyses showed that some identified proteins were involved in oxidative metabolism. To further investigate the proteins involved in the neurological damage, we validated two of the proteins that were most strikingly underexpressed, namely, Syn2 and Dpys12, which are involved in synaptic function and neurotransmission. We found that Glu2/3 and NR1 receptor subunits were overexpressed in PKU mouse brain. Our results indicate that differential expression of these proteins may be associated with the processes underlying PKU brain dysfunction, namely, decreased synaptic plasticity and impaired neurotransmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2014; 129(6). DOI:10.1111/jnc.12683 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and tau deposition in the brain. Numerous studies have reported a central role of Aβ in the development of AD, but the pathogenesis is not well understood. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), an intracellular protein mediating a repulsive axon guidance molecule, Semaphorin3A, is also accumulated in neurofibrillary tangles in AD brains. To gain insight into the role of CRMP2 phosphorylation in AD pathogenesis, we investigated the effects of Aβ neurotoxicity in CRMP2 phosphorylation-deficient knock-in (crmp2(ki/ki)) mice, in which the serine residue at 522 was replaced with alanine. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ25-35 peptide, a neurotoxic fragment of Aβ protein, to wild-type (wt) mice increased hippocampal phosphorylation of CRMP2. Behavioral assessment revealed that i.c.v. injection of Aβ25-35 peptide caused impairment of novel object recognition in wt mice, while the same peptide did not in crmp2(ki/ki) mice. In electrophysiological recording, wt and crmp2(ki/ki) mice have similar input-output basal synaptic transmission and paired-pulse ratios. However, long-term potentiation was impaired in hippocampal slices of Aβ25-35 peptide-treated wt but not those of crmp2(ki/ki). Our findings indicate that CRMP2 phosphorylation is required for Aβ-induced impairment of cognitive memory and synaptic plasticity.Neuroscience Research 08/2013; 77(3). DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2013.08.005 · 2.15 Impact Factor