3-D shape perception.
ABSTRACT In this paper, we analyze and test three theories of 3-D shape perception: (1) Helmholtizian theory, which assumes that perception of the shape of an object involves reconstructing Euclidean structure of the object (up to size scaling) from the object's retinal image after taking into account the object's orientation relative to the observer, (2) Gibsonian theory, which assumes that shape perception involves invariants (projective or affine) computed directly from the object's retinal image, and (3) perspective invariants theory, which assumes that shape perception involves a new kind of invariants of perspective transformation. Predictions of these three theories were tested in four experiments. In the first experiment, we showed that reliable discrimination between a perspective and nonperspective image of a random polygon is possible even when information only about the contour of the image is present. In the second experiment, we showed that discrimination performance did not benefit from the presence of a textured surface, providing information about the 3-D orientation of the polygon, and that the subjects could not reliably discriminate between the 3-D orientation of textured surface and that of a shape. In the third experiment, we compared discrimination for solid shapes that either had flat contours (cuboids) or did not have visible flat contours (cylinders). The discrimination was very reliable in the case of cuboids but not in the case of cylinders. In the fourth experiment, we tested the effectiveness of planar motion in perception of distances and showed that the discrimination threshold was large and similar to thresholds when other cues to 3-D orientation were used. All these results support perspective invariants as a model of 3-D shape perception.
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ABSTRACT: a reduced retinal shape without stimulation for the slant of the surface can induce a whole family of apparent shapes and does not necessarily determine the perpendicular cross-sectional member of the family an illusory slant can induce an illusory shape. The phenomenal slant of such an object will tend to be that of the textured background surface, whatever its physical slant may be." The results were discussed in terms of a linkage between shape and slant within a family of shape-slants.Journal of Experimental Psychology 08/1955; 50(2):125-33. · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present paper considers the relation between the shape of a triangle and probability of its recognition. An effect of triangle size on perception of its shape is examined in the first experiment. In the second the loci of eye fixations during triangle recognition task are recorded and analysed. A simulation model of the recognition process is proposed. The model is based on two main assumptions: 1. an accuracy of shape processing is related to the cortical magnification factor, 2. a subject's response depends on actual position of eye fixation. The validity of the model is verified by comparing the theoretical and experimental response distributions. Some psycho-physiological implications are then discussed.Biological Cybernetics 02/1988; 58(1):51-62. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Surface slant (the angle between the line of sight and the surface normal) is an important psychophysical variable. However, slant angle captures only one of the two degrees of freedom of surface orientation, the other being thedirection of slant. Slant direction, measured in the image plane, coincides with the direction of the gradient of distance from viewer to surface and, equivalently, with the direction the surface normal would point if projected onto the image plane. Since slant direction may be quantified by the tilt of the projected normal (which ranges over 360 deg in the frontal plane), it is referred to here assurface tilt. (Note that slant angle is measured perpendicular to the image plane, whereas tilt angle is measured in the image plane.) Compared with slant angle’s popularity as a psychophysical variable, the attention paid to surface tilt seems undeservedly scant. Experiments that demonstrate a technique for measuring apparent surface tilt are reported. The experimental stimuli were oblique crosses and parallelograms, which suggest oriented planes in 3-D. The apparent tilt of the plane might be probed by orienting a needle in 3-D so as to appear normal, projecting the normal onto the image plane, and measuring its direction (e.g., relative to the horizontal). It is shown to be preferable, however, to merely rotate a line segment in 2-D, superimposed on the display, until it appears normal to the perceived surface. The apparent surface tilt recorded in these experiments corresponded closely to that predicted by assuming the 3-D configurations consist of equal-length lines and perpendicular intersections.Perception & Psychophysics 04/1983; 33(3):241-50. · 1.37 Impact Factor