Validation of a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method for metronidazole susceptibility testing of Helicobacter pylori.
ABSTRACT Triple antimicrobial therapy that includes metronidazole has been recommended as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori because it has the highest eradication rates. However, resistance in H. pylori to metronidazole has been reported worldwide and its presence may reduce the efficacy of triple therapy. Various methods for testing H. pylori against metronidazole have been used including agar dilution, disk diffusion and the Etest but there has been little standardization of methods. One hundred isolates of H. pylori from different patients were tested for susceptibility to metronidazole by agar dilution, Etest and disk diffusion (5 micrograms disk). The agar dilution results confirmed the MIC susceptibility breakpoint to be < or = 8 micrograms/ml. Using this breakpoint there was close agreement (98%) between Etest and agar dilution results. For susceptible strains, MICs by E-test were generally one twofold dilution lower. Using the error-rate bounded method, agreement between disk diffusion zone diameter and MIC was 98% for agar dilution with breakpoints of > or = 12 mm and < or = 8 micrograms/ml and 100% for Etest with breakpoints of > or = 12 mm and < or = 8 micrograms/ml. The Etest discriminated better than agar dilution between susceptible and resistant strains and was simple to perform. The disk diffusion test is a reliable and cheaper alternative to the Etest with susceptibility being a zone diameter > or = 12 mm with a 5 micrograms disk. The prevalence of metronidazole resistance in this study was 40% by Etest.
Article: Anti-helicobacter regimensThe Lancet 04/1996; 347(9009):1193–1194. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective(s) Resistance to antimicrobial agents, particularly metronidazole and clarithromycin, is frequently observed in Helicobacter pylori and may be associated with treatment failure. This resistance rate varies according to the population studied. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates from dyspeptic patients in Isfahan. Materials and Methods Antral gastric biopsies from 230 dyspeptic patients were cultured. Susceptibility testing to commonly used antibiotics performed on pure cultures of 80 H. pylori-positive isolates by Modified Disk Diffusion Method (MDDM). Genomic DNA extracted and subjected for study of entire genomic pattern using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results The overall rates of primary resistance were 30.0%, 8.75%, 6.25%, 3.75%, 3.75%, and 2.50% for metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistances were observed in 8 of 27 resistant isolates (29.6%) that mainly were double resistance with the prevalence of 6.25%. No association between antimicrobial resistance and either the gender, age or clinical presentation of the patients were detected. In RAPD-PCR, great diversity observed in 27 resistant strains isolated from different patients and this heterogeneity was not significantly different from susceptible strains. Conclusion Primary H. pylori resistance to metronidazole in our population was lower than the developing world and even other parts of Iran, to ciprofloxacin was considerable in comparison with results in most other countries. Moreover, antibiotic resistance had no effect on genomic pattern of H. pylori isolates. Finally, pretreatment H. pylori isolates susceptibility testing is highly recommended.Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences Iran J Basic Med Sci. 01/2008; 11(11):174-182.
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ABSTRACT: A simple and efficient one-pot synthesis of heteroaryl-substituted dihydropyrano(c)chromenes and pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidines has been developed. Reaction proceeds via initial Knoevenagel, subsequent Michael and final heterocyclization reactions of heteroaryl aldehyde, malononitrile, and barbituric acid/dimedone. Triethylammonium acetate acts as a green catalyst as well as reusable solvents for this reaction. Short reaction time, environment friendly procedure, reusability, and excellent yields are the main advantages of this procedure. All synthesized compounds have shown good antibacterial activity against different microbial stains but not active against cancer cell lines.Medicinal Chemistry Research 22(6). · 1.61 Impact Factor