Effect of outdoor airborne particulate matter on daily death counts.

National Institute of Statistical Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-4162, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.03). 06/1995; 103(5):490-7. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.95103490
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate the possible relationship between airborne particulate matter and mortality, we developed regression models of daily mortality counts using meteorological covariates and measures of outdoor PM10. Our analyses included data from Cook County, Illinois, and Salt Lake County, Utah. We found no evidence that particulate matter < or = 10 microns (PM10) contributes to excess mortality in Salt Lake County, Utah. In Cook County, Illinois, we found evidence of a positive PM10 effect in spring and autumn, but not in winter and summer. We conclude that the reported effects of particulates on mortality are unconfirmed.

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    ABSTRACT: This study is performed to reexamine the association between ambient air pollution and daily mortality in seven major cities of Korea using a method of meta-analysis with the data filed for the period 1998-2001. These cities account for half of the Korean population (about 23 million). The observed concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, mean=1.08 ppm), ozone (, mean=33.97 ppb), particulate matter less than 10 (), nitrogen dioxide (, mean=25.09 ppb), and sulfur dioxide (, mean=9.14 ppb) during the study period were at levels below Korea's current ambient air quality standards. Generalized additive models were applied to allow for the highly flexible fitting of seasonal and long-term time trends in air pollution as well as nonlinear associations with weather variables, such as air temperature and relative humidity. Also, we calculated a weighted mean as a meta-analysis summary of the estimates and its standard error. In city-specific analyses, an increase of corresponded to more deaths, given constant weather conditions. Like most of air pollution epidemiologic studies, this meta-analysis cannot avoid fleeing from measurement misclassification since no personal measurement was taken. However, we can expect that a measurement bias be reduced in district-specific estimate since a monitoring station is better representative of air quality of the matched district. Significant heterogeneity was found for the effect of all pollutants. The estimated relative risks from meta-like analysis increased compared to those relative risks from pooled analysis. The similar results to those from the previous studies indicated existence of health effect of air pollution at current levels in many industrialized countries, including Korea.
    01/2006; 32(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32 % for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4 (2-), Ca(2+), and NO3 (-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3 (-), and SO4 (2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3301-1 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we examine data on the relationship between air quality and mortality in the United States using a published observational data set. Observational studies are complex and open to various interpretations. We show that there is geographic heterogeneity for the effect of air pollution on longevity. We also show that the relative importance of air pollution on longevity is much less than that of income or smoking. Most often authors do not address the relative importance of variables under consideration, choosing instead to concentrate on specific claims of significance. Yet good policy decisions require knowledge of the magnitude of relevant effects. Our analysis uses three methods for determining variable importance, showing how this puts predictor variables into a context that supports sound environmental policymaking. In particular, using both regression and recursive partitioning, we are able to confirm a spatial interaction with the air quality variable PM2.5; there is no significant association of PM2.5 with longevity in the west of the United States. We also determine the relative importance of PM2.5 in comparison to other predictor variables available in this data set. Our findings call into question the claim made by the original researchers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, 2013
    Statistical Analysis and Data Mining 08/2013; 6(4). DOI:10.1002/sam.11202

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