Fibronectin penetration into heart myocytes subjected to experimental ischemia by coronary artery ligation.
ABSTRACT Using confocal microscopy and immunocytochemistry we have studied early changes in distribution of fibronectin (FN) in myocardial cells of rats subjected to experimental acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) by coronary ligation for several periods of 0.5 h to 6 days. In sham-operated and nonoperated rats, FN was present in the interstitium around the myocytes, and in their transverse tubules (TT). Already after 0.5 h of ischemia there was a well-defined increase of immunoreactive FN in focal areas of the interstitium of the hypoperfused portion, and distinct penetration into adjacent myocytes. The early penetration of FN into myocytes appears to follow a path through the TT, with a codistribution with actin in the I bands. This process precedes a total and diffuse infiltration of FN into the cytoplasm of disintegrating myocytes at later stages of coronary occlusion.
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ABSTRACT: Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment after myocardial infarction (MI). A major problem in stem cell therapy, however, is that only a small proportion of stem cells applied to the heart can survive and differentiate into cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that fibronectin in the heart after MI might positively affect stem cell adhesion and proliferation at the site of injury. Therefore, we investigated the kinetics of attachment and proliferation of adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) on fibronectin and analysed the time frame and localization of fibronectin accumulation in the human heart after MI. ASCs were seeded onto fibronectin-coated and uncoated culture wells. The numbers of adhering ASC were quantified after various incubation periods (5-30 min) by using DNA quantification assays. The proliferation of ASC was quantified after culturing ASC for various periods (0-9 days) by using DNA assays. Fibronectin accumulation after MI was quantified by immunohistochemical staining of heart sections from 35 patients, after different infarction periods (0-14 days old). We found that ASC attachment and proliferation on fibronectin-coated culture wells was significantly higher than on uncoated wells. Fibronectin deposition was significantly increased from 12 h to 14 days post-infarction, both in the infarction area and in the border-zone, compared with the uninfarcted heart. Our results suggest that a positive effect of fibronectin on stem cells in the heart can only be achieved when stem cell therapy is applied at least 12 h after MI, when the accumulation of fibronectin occurs in the infarcted heart.Cell and Tissue Research 06/2008; 332(2):289-98. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidates for therapy in myocardial infarction (MI). However, the frequency of human ASCs that differentiate towards cardiomyocytes is low. We hypothesized that adherence to extracellular matrix molecules that are upregulated after MI might increase human stem cell differentiation towards cardiomyocytes. We analysed putative ASC differentiation on fibronectin-coated, laminin-coated and uncoated culture plates. Expression of cardiac markers in cells was analysed 1, 3 and 5 weeks after stimulation with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. After 1 week, mRNA expression of myosin light chain-2alpha (MLC-2alpha), an early marker in cardiomyocyte development, was increased significantly in treated cells, independent of coating. At 5 weeks, however, mRNA expression of the late cardiomyocyte development marker SERCA2alpha was only significantly increased in 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-treated cells cultured on laminin. Significantly higher numbers of cells were immunopositive for MLC-2alpha in cultures of treated cells grown on laminin-coated wells, when compared with cultures of treated cells grown on uncoated wells, both at 1 week and at 5 weeks. Furthermore, after 3 weeks, significantly more alpha-actinin- and desmin-positive cells were detected after treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, but only in uncoated wells. After 5 weeks, however, the number of desmin-positive cells was only significantly increased after treatment of cells with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and culture on laminin (61% positive cells). Thus, we have found that a high percentage of human ASCs can be differentiated towards cardiomyocytes; this effect can be improved by laminin, especially during late differentiation.Cell and Tissue Research 12/2008; 334(3):457-67. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An increasing number of studies in cardiac cell therapy have provided encouraging results for cardiac repair. Adult stem cells may overcome ethical and availability concerns, with the additional advantages, in some cases, to allow autologous grafts to be performed. However, the major problems of cell survival, cell fate determination and engraftment after transplantation, still remain. Tissue-engineering strategies combining scaffolds and cells have been developed and have to be adapted for each type of application to enhance stem cell function. Scaffold properties required for cardiac cell therapy are here discussed. New tissue engineering advances that may be implemented in combination with adult stem cells for myocardial infarction therapy are also presented. Biomaterials not only provide a 3D support for the cells but may also mimic the structural architecture of the heart. Using hydrogels or particulate systems, the biophysical and biochemical microenvironments of transplanted cells can also be controlled. Advances in biomaterial engineering have permitted the development of sophisticated drug-releasing materials with a biomimetic 3D support that allow a better control of the microenvironment of transplanted cells.Biomaterials 05/2012; 33(23):5683-95. · 7.60 Impact Factor