Article

Activation of PRK1 by phosphatidylinositol 4,5–bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5–trisphosphate. A comparison with protein kinase C isotypes

Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, United Kingdom.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 10/1995; 270(38):22412-6. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.270.38.22412
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT As potential targets for polyphosphoinositides, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes (beta 1, epsilon, zeta, nu) and a member of the PKC-related kinase (PRK) family, PRK1, has been compared in vitro. PRK1 is shown to be activated by both phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns 4,5-P2) as well as phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4,5-P3) either as pure sonicated lipids or in detergent mixed micelles. When presented as sonicated lipids, PtdIns-4,5-P2 and PtdIns-3,4,5-P3 were equipotent in activating PRK1, and, furthermore, sonicated phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) were equally effective. In detergent mixed micelles, PtdIns-4,5-P2 and PtdIns-3,4,5-P3 also showed a similar potency, but PtdIns and PtdSer were 10-fold less effective in this assay. Similarly, PKC-beta 1, -epsilon, and -nu were all activated by PtdIns-4,5-P2 and PtdIns-3,4,5-P3 in detergent mixed micelles. The activation constants for PtdIns-4,5-P2 and PtdIns-3,4,5-P3 were essentially the same for all the kinases tested, implying no specificity in this in vitro analysis. Consistent with this conclusion, the effects of PtdIns-4,5-P2 and PtdIns-3,4,5-P3 were found to be inhibited at 10 mM Mg2+ and mimicked by high concentrations of inositol hexaphosphate and inositol hexasulfate. The similar responses of these two classes of lipid-activated protein kinase to these phosphoinositides are discussed in light of their potential roles as second messengers.

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A further illustration of the importance of Cbl-tyrosine phosphorylation comes from our studies on rottlerin (Chapter 4). The ATP-depletion mediated by this pharmacological compound does not seem to be responsible for the observed inhibition of GLUT4 translocation (as was postulated by Kayali et al.[1]). Rather, aside from acting as an uncompetitive inhibitor of GLUT4, rottlerin hampers Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, which leads to a 75% reduction in GLUT4 translocation (see Chapter 4, Fig. 3 and 4). Regrettably, the nature of the arsenite-induced tyrosine-kinase activity remains as of yet unidentified. 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A further note on the fine tuning of GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake comes from the observations on genistein, described in Chapter 5. This research suggests that in GLUT4 the turnover capacity for glucose can also be regulated through an intracellular ATP-binding Walker B motif akin to that described for GLUT1 [3]. Though further research is required to elucidate this mechanism, this theoretical resolution constitutes a significant step forwards towards understanding mechanisms in action after GLUT4 membrane translocation. If these observations are mechanistically linked in the cell remains to be elucidated. Aside from leading to enquiries into the mechanisms of insulin-induced glucose uptake, arsenite also opened up an avenue of more physiological research. We observed that arsenite-induced glucose uptake was sensitive to treatment with the insulin-resistance inducing agent dexamethasone. Subsequent analysis (described in Chapter 7) learned that although PI-3' kinase signalling is affected, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes the signalling pathway downstream is able to absorb this impediment. Rather, MKP-1 and -4 are upregulated in response to dexamethasone. Consequentially p38 MAPK activity is lost, leading to a reduction in glucose uptake. Given that MKP-4 is also upregulated in db/db- and ob/ob-mice [4], and that treatment of db/db mice with a glucocorticoid-receptor antagonist improves blood glucose levels [5;6], attenuation of p38 MAPK-signalling could be an important factor in type II diabetes. To enable the studies described in this chapter, a novel tool had to be developed. 3T3-L1 adipocytes have for long been inaccessible to ectopic expression of DNA. By the application of Lentivirus as described in Chapter 6, a large number of cells can be efficiently and reliably transduced. This novel tool will make the 3T3-L1 adipocyte readily amendable to routine molecular biological techniques, which will be of great benefit to the research field. In contrast to arsenite, PMA does not induce GLUT4 translocation, but acts solely through GLUT1. As illustrated in Chapter 8 of this thesis, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes the earliest and most PMA-sensitive PKC isoform is PKC-\betaII. But rather than activation, it is the concomitant degradation of this isoform which induces GLUT1 translocation. Further research (described in Chapter 9) highlighted the processes involved : First transcription of GLUT1, operating through the classical PKC-ERK-GLUT1 pathway. Second, translocation of GLUT1. This translocation is mediated by PKC-\lambda which is found associated with PKC-\betaII in the basal state. 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