Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by staphylococcal enterotoxin D.
ABSTRACT Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) can bind major histocompatibility antigens and stimulate T cells which bear particular types of T cell receptor. Therefore, it has been postulated that SEs may trigger or modulate the development of autoimmune diseases caused by T cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of SEs on rat encephalitogenic T cells and the clinical manifestation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). SED, but not other SEs, stimulated encephalitogenic T cells. Furthermore, culture of lymphoid cells from myelin basic protein (MBP)-immunized rats with SED augmented the clinical manifestation of passively transferred EAE, whereas SEA and SEB showed no significant EAE-transfer ability. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that in vitro SED stimulation of T cells from MBP-immunized rats, but not from normal rats, resulted in selective expansion of V beta 8.2+ T cells. Consistent with in vitro findings, in vivo administration of SED modulated EAE elicited by immunization with MBP. SED given after the immunization augmented clinical manifestation, especially at low doses. On the other hand, SED given 7 days before the immunization suppressed the development of EAE in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the same toxin given at a dose of 20 micrograms to thymectomized rats induced enhanced EAE regardless of the timing of administration. It has already been established that SEs stimulate T cells bearing a particular type of TCR V beta chain and subsequently induce unresponsiveness of these T cells. The present results suggest that a similar mechanism may operate in rats after the toxin treatment and MBP immunization. However, in vitro assay showed that the proliferative responses of T cells from EAE-suppressed rats to MBP and SED were not eliminated, suggesting that SED-induced suppressor T cells may also play some roles in EAE suppression. The present study has shown that SED, one of the superantigens, modulates an autoimmune disease. More importantly, its effects are not uniform, but instead are closely related to the dose of the toxin, timing of toxin exposure, and the status of hosts.
Article: In vivo effects of superantigens.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Superantigens are potent immunostimulatory molecules that activate both T cells and antigen presenting cells. The consequences of superantigen exposure range from induction of T cell proliferation, massive cytokine release and systemic shock to immunosuppression and tolerance. Superantigens have been directly implicated in a number of human conditions including food poisoning and toxic shock. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that superantigens are involved in the initiation of autoimmunity, and the immune dysfunction associated with HIV infection. Because of their possible role in human disease, and their potential use in immune therapy, it is important that we more completely understand the in vivo effects of superantigens.Life Sciences 02/1995; 57(19):1717-35. · 2.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mechanism involved in the maintenance of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced T cell anergy is poorly understood. We demonstrated earlier that B cells play an important role in the maintenance of SEB-induced T cell anergy in vivo and in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that B cells are not essential in SEB-induced T cell activation, but are important for the maintenance of T cell memory phenotype and anergy in vivo. Studying the activated B cell repertoire, we observe that SEB treatment increases serum anti-Vβ8 antibody titer as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using soluble Vβ8 chains as antigens, and by staining of a Vβ8-expressing thymoma. These antibodies disappear gradually after immunization with SEB, whereas the capacity of the T cells to respond to SEB in vitro is restored. Anti-Vβ8 monoclonal antibody treatment causes Vβ8+ T cell unresponsiveness to SEB in vitro (anergy), without affecting CD4Vβ8+ T cell frequency. Together, these results suggest a new mechanism to explain the maintenance of SEB-induced T cell anergy, which is dependent on B cells and on anti-Vβ8 antibody that specifically interacts with Vβ8+ T cells.European Journal of Immunology 02/1999; 29(2):437 - 445. · 4.52 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in innate immunity and their ability to recognise microbial products has been well characterised. TLRs are also able to recognise endogenous molecules which are released upon cell damage and necrosis and have been shown to be present in numerous autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the release of endogenous TLR ligands during inflammation and consequently the activation of TLR signalling pathways may be one mechanism initiating and driving autoimmune diseases. An increasing body of circumstantial evidence implicates a role of TLR signalling in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), atherosclerosis, asthma, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, bowl inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although at present their involvement is not comprehensively defined. However, future therapies targeting individual TLRs or their signalling transducers may provide a more specific way of treating inflammatory diseases without global suppression of the immune system.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 10/2009; 42(4):506-18. · 4.89 Impact Factor