Gene expression and cellular content of cathepsin D in Alzheimer's disease brain: evidence for early up-regulation of the endosomal-lysosomal system.
ABSTRACT In Alzheimer's disease brains, more than 90% of pyramidal neurons in lamina V and 70% in lamina III displayed 2- to 5-fold elevated levels of cathepsin D (Cat D) mRNA by in situ hybridization compared with neurologically normal controls. Most of these cells appeared histologically normal. The less vulnerable nonpyramidal neuron population in lamina IV had relatively normal message levels. Neuronal populations expressing more Cat D mRNA also displayed quantitatively increased Cat D immunoreactive protein. Cat D mRNA expression was only moderately increased in astrocytes. Degenerating neurons exhibited intense immunoreactivity but lowered Cat D mRNA levels. The upregulation of Cat D synthesis and accumulation of hydrolase-laden lysosomes indicate an early activation of the endosomal-lysosomal system in vulnerable neuronal populations, possibly reflecting early regenerative or repair processes. These abnormalities also represent a basis for altered regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing.
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ABSTRACT: Growing evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear why DM accelerates AD pathology. In cynomolgus monkeys older than 25 years, senile plaques (SPs) are spontaneously and consistently observed in their brains, and neurofibrillary tangles are present at 32 years of age and older. In laboratory-housed monkeys, obesity is occasionally observed and frequently leads to development of type 2 DM. In the present study, we performed histopathological and biochemical analyses of brain tissue in cynomolgus monkeys with type 2 DM to clarify the relationship between DM and AD pathology. Here, we provide the evidence that DM accelerates Aβ pathology in vivo in nonhuman primates who had not undergone any genetic manipulation. In DM-affected monkey brains, SPs were observed in frontal and temporal lobe cortices, even in monkeys younger than 20 years. Biochemical analyses of brain revealed that the amount of GM1-ganglioside-bound Aβ (GAβ)-the endogenous seed for Aβ fibril formation in the brain-was clearly elevated in DM-affected monkeys. Furthermore, the level of Rab GTPases was also significantly increased in the brains of adult monkeys with DM, almost to the same levels as in aged monkeys. Intraneuronal accumulation of enlarged endosomes was also observed in DM-affected monkeys, suggesting that exacerbated endocytic disturbance may underlie the acceleration of Aβ pathology due to DM.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117362. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117362 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endosomal-lysosomal and autophagic dysregulation occurs in the hippocampus in prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD), but its relationship with β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau pathology remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we performed immunoblot analysis of hippocampal homogenates from cases with an antemortem clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD. Western blot analysis revealed significant increases in the acid hydrolase cathepsin D and early endosome marker rabaptin5 in the MCI group compared with AD, whereas levels of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin proteins (pmTOR), total mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p62, traf6, and LilrB2 were comparable across clinical groups. Hippocampal Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 concentrations and AT8-immunopositive neurofibrillary tangle density were not significantly different across the clinical groups. Greater cathepsin D expression was associated with global cognitive score and episodic memory score but not with mini mental state examination or advanced neuropathology criteria. These results indicate that alterations in hippocampal endosomal-lysosomal proteins in MCI are independent of tau or Aβ pathology.Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/NEN.0000000000000179 · 4.37 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2008; 13(13):718. DOI:10.2741/2714 · 4.25 Impact Factor