Propidium iodide in vivo: an early marker of neuronal damage in rat hippocampus.
ABSTRACT We have investigated the use of the fluorescent exclusion dye propidium iodide as a marker for acutely degenerating cells in vivo, and report here that combined injection of kainic acid and propidium iodide into the lateral cerebral ventricle results in labelling of CA3 pyramidal cells 1 and 6 h after injection. Alternate sections stained with thionin at these early times revealed little evidence of histologically detectable cell damage.
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ABSTRACT: Using whole cell patch-clamp recordings, we pharmacologically characterized the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) currents of chicken nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons using barium as the charge carrier. NM neurons possessed both low- and high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channel currents (HVA I(Ba2+)). The N-type channel blocker (omega-conotoxin-GVIA) inhibited more than half of the total HVA I(Ba2+), whereas blockers of L- and P/Q-type channels each inhibited a small fraction of the current. Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-mediated modulation of the HVA I(Ba2+) was examined by bath application of glutamate (100 microM), which inhibited the HVA I(Ba2+) by an average of 16%. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent and was partially blocked by omega-conotoxin-GVIA, indicating that mGluRs modulate N and other type HVA I(Ba2+). The nonspecific mGluR agonist, (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarbosylic acid (1S,3R-ACPD), mimicked the inhibitory effect of glutamate on HVA I(Ba2+). Group I-III mGluR agonists showed inhibition of the HVA current with the most potent being the group III agonist L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid. 1S,3R-ACPD (200 microM) had no effect on K+ or Na+ currents. The firing properties of NM neurons were also not altered by 1S,3R-ACPD. We propose that the inhibition of VGCC currents by mGluRs limits depolarization-induced Ca2+ entry into these highly active NM neurons and regulates their Ca2+ homeostasis.Journal of Neurophysiology 04/2005; 93(3):1418-28. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The low Mg2+ model of epilepsy in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures is used to elucidate the mechanism underlying neuronal cell death following sustained epileptiform activity. However, the high oxygen tension of 95% widely used in this model is capable of inducing neuronal cell death by itself. Here we demonstrate that even under normoxic conditions 1h of epileptiform activity induced neuronal cell death as assessed by Propidium Iodide uptake. We conclude that hyperoxia is not essential for status epilepticus induced neuronal cell death in this model.Epilepsy Research 04/2004; 59(1):61-5. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurons of the cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), of young chicks require excitatory afferent input from the eighth nerve for maintenance and survival. One of the earliest changes seen in NM neurons after deafferentation is an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). This increase in [Ca2+]i is due to loss of activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) that activate second-messenger cascades involved in [Ca2+]i regulation. Because mGluRs are known to act via the phospholipase C and adenylate cyclase signal transduction pathways, the goal of this study was to determine the roles of protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC) activities in the regulation of NM neuron [Ca2+]i by eighth nerve stimulation. Additionally, we sought to determine the relationship between increased [Ca2+]i and cell death as measured by propidium iodide incorporation. [Ca2+]i of individual NM neurons in brain stem slices was monitored using fura-2 ratiometric fluorescence imaging. NM field potentials were monitored in experiments in which the eighth nerve was stimulated. Five hertz orthodromic stimulation maintained NM neuron [Ca2+]i at approximately 110 nM for 180 min. In the absence of stimulation, NM neuron [Ca2+]i increased steadily to a mean of 265 nM by 120 min. This increase was attenuated by superfusion of PKC activators phorbol-12,13-myristate acetate (100 nM) or dioctanoylglycerol (50 microM) and by activators of PKA: 1 mM 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate sodium (8-Br-cAMP), 50 microM forskolin or 100 microM Sp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine. Inhibition of PKA (100 microM Rp-cAMPS) or PKC (50 nM bisindolymaleimide or 10 microM U73122) during continuous orthodromic stimulation resulted in an increase in NM neuron [Ca2+]i that exceeded 170 and 180 nM, respectively, by 120 min. Nonspecific kinase inhibition with 1 microM staurosporine during stimulation resulted in an [Ca2+]i increase that was greater in magnitude than that seen with either PKA or PKC inhibition alone, equal to that seen in the absence of stimulation, but much smaller than that seen with inhibition of mGluRs. In addition, manipulations that resulted in a [Ca2+]i increase >/=250 nM resulted in an increase in number and percentage of propidium iodide-labeled NM neurons. These results suggest that eighth nerve activity maintains [Ca2+]i of NM neurons at physiological levels in part via mGluR-mediated activation of PKA and PKC and that increases in [Ca2+]i due to activity deprivation or interruption of the PKA and PKC [Ca2+]i regulatory mechanisms are predictive of subsequent cell death.Journal of Neurophysiology 05/1998; 79(5):2288-302. · 3.30 Impact Factor