Propidium iodide in vivo: an early marker of neuronal damage in rat hippocampus.
ABSTRACT We have investigated the use of the fluorescent exclusion dye propidium iodide as a marker for acutely degenerating cells in vivo, and report here that combined injection of kainic acid and propidium iodide into the lateral cerebral ventricle results in labelling of CA3 pyramidal cells 1 and 6 h after injection. Alternate sections stained with thionin at these early times revealed little evidence of histologically detectable cell damage.
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ABSTRACT: Intraventricular (i.c.v.) kainic acid (KA) causes an acute excitotoxic lesion to the CA3 region of rodent hippocampus. Recent evidence implicated c-fos gene in regulating neuron survival and death following an excitotoxic insult. In this study we attempted to prevent KA-induced damage in CA3 neurons with NMDA preconditioning, which produced a marked expression of c-fos in the hippocampus. NMDA (0.6-6 microg, i.c.v.) was injected to anesthetized rats alone or 1 h before KA (0.15 microg, i.c.v.). Following KA injection, vibratome sections were processed for immunohistochemistry/electron microscopy. c-Fos and Nissl staining were used to estimate the extent of neuronal excitation and damage, respectively. Quantitative evaluation of c-Fos-labeled cells showed significantly less c-Fos in CA3a than in neighboring CA3b and CA2 from 1 to 4 h after KA alone. Attenuation of expressed c-Fos in CA3a was accompanied by damage of neurons with more apoptotic than necrotic signs. NMDA preconditioning elevated CA3a c-Fos expression and at 1 and 2 h exceeded markedly that after KA alone. However, at 4 h after KA, NMDA-preconditioned c-Fos induction in CA3a diminished to the same level as that seen after KA alone. The onset of neuronal degeneration was delayed in similar way. While NMDA-induced c-Fos expression in CA3a could be blocked by MK-801 completely, MK-801 and CNQX were both without significant effect on KA-induced c-Fos expression and neuronal damage. In conclusion, inhibition of c-Fos expression and onset of neuronal damage in CA3a following icv KA injection might be transiently delayed by i.c.v. NMDA preconditioning.Brain research 02/2009; 1256:162-72. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.12.019 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A variety of medical procedures is aimed to selectively compromise or destroy vascular function. Such procedures include cancer therapies, treatments of cutaneous vascular disorders, and temporary hemostasis during surgery. Currently, technologies such as lasers, cryosurgery and radio frequency coagulation, produce significant collateral damage due to the thermal nature of these interactions and corresponding heat exchange with surrounding tissues. We describe a non-thermal method of inducing temporary vasoconstriction and permanent thrombosis using short pulse (microseconds) electrical stimulation. The current density required for vasoconstriction increases with decreasing pulse duration approximately as t(-0.25). The threshold of electroporation has a steeper dependence on pulse duration-exceeding t(-0.5). At pulse durations shorter than 5 micros, damage threshold exceeds the vasoconstriction threshold, thus allowing for temporary hemostasis without direct damage to surrounding tissue. With a pulse repetition rate of 0.1 Hz, vasoconstriction is achieved approximately 1 min after the beginning of treatment in both arteries and veins. Thrombosis occurs at higher electric fields, and its threshold increases with vessel diameter. Histology demonstrated a lack of tissue damage during vasoconstriction, but vascular endothelium was damaged during thrombosis. The temperature increase does not exceed 0.1 degrees C during these treatments.Bioelectromagnetics 02/2008; 29(2):100-7. DOI:10.1002/bem.20368 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Repeated pulsed electrical stimulation is used in a multitude of neural interfaces; damage resulting from such stimulation was studied as a function of pulse duration, electrode size, and number of pulses using a fluorescent assay on chick chorioallontoic membrane (CAM) in vivo and chick retina in vitro. Data from the chick model were verified by repeating some measurements on porcine retina in-vitro. The electrode size varied from 100 microm to 1 mm, pulse duration from 6 micros to 6 ms, and the number of pulses from 1 to 7500. The threshold current density for damage was independent of electrode size for diameters greater than 300 microm, and scaled as 1/r2 for electrodes smaller than 200 microm. Damage threshold decreased with the number of pulses, dropping by a factor of 14 on the CAM and 7 on the retina as the number of pulses increased from 1 to 50, and remained constant for a higher numbers of pulses. The damage threshold current density on large electrodes scaled with pulse duration as approximately 1/t0.5, characteristic of electroporation. The threshold current density for repeated exposure on the retina varied between 0.061 A/cm2 at 6 ms to 1.3 A/cm2 at 6 micros. The highest ratio of the damage threshold to the stimulation threshold in retinal ganglion cells occurred at pulse durations near chronaxie-around 1.3 ms.IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 01/2008; 54(12):2261-7. DOI:10.1109/TBME.2007.908310 · 2.23 Impact Factor