Propidium iodide in vivo: an early marker of neuronal damage in rat hippocampus.
ABSTRACT We have investigated the use of the fluorescent exclusion dye propidium iodide as a marker for acutely degenerating cells in vivo, and report here that combined injection of kainic acid and propidium iodide into the lateral cerebral ventricle results in labelling of CA3 pyramidal cells 1 and 6 h after injection. Alternate sections stained with thionin at these early times revealed little evidence of histologically detectable cell damage.
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ABSTRACT: Subthreshold retinal phototherapy demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment of diabetic macular edema without visible signs of retinal damage. To assess the range of cellular responses to sublethal hyperthermia, expression of the gene encoding a 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) was evaluated after laser irradiation using a transgenic reporter mouse. One hundred millisecond, 532 nm laser exposures with 400 μm beam diameter were applied to the retina surrounding the optic nerve in 32 mice. Transcription from the HSP70 promoter was assessed relative to the control eye using a bioluminescence assay at 7 hours after laser application. The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) viability threshold was determined with a fluorescence assay. A computational model was developed to estimate temperature and the extent of cell damage. A significant increase in HSP70 transcription was found at exposures over 20 mW, half the threshold power for RPE cell death. Computational modeling estimated peak temperature T = 49°C at HSP70 expression threshold. At RPE viability threshold, T = 57°C. Similar temperatures and damage indices were calculated for clinical subvisible retinal treatment parameters. Beneficial effects of laser therapy have been previously shown to extend beyond those resulting from destruction of tissue. One hundred millisecond laser exposures at approximately half the threshold power of RPE damage induced transcription of HSP70, an indication of cellular response to sublethal thermal stress. A computational model of retinal hyperthermia can guide further optimization of laser parameters for nondamaging phototherapy.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 11/2010; 52(3):1780-7. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intraventricular (i.c.v.) kainic acid (KA) causes an acute excitotoxic lesion to the CA3 region of rodent hippocampus. Recent evidence implicated c-fos gene in regulating neuron survival and death following an excitotoxic insult. In this study we attempted to prevent KA-induced damage in CA3 neurons with NMDA preconditioning, which produced a marked expression of c-fos in the hippocampus. NMDA (0.6-6 microg, i.c.v.) was injected to anesthetized rats alone or 1 h before KA (0.15 microg, i.c.v.). Following KA injection, vibratome sections were processed for immunohistochemistry/electron microscopy. c-Fos and Nissl staining were used to estimate the extent of neuronal excitation and damage, respectively. Quantitative evaluation of c-Fos-labeled cells showed significantly less c-Fos in CA3a than in neighboring CA3b and CA2 from 1 to 4 h after KA alone. Attenuation of expressed c-Fos in CA3a was accompanied by damage of neurons with more apoptotic than necrotic signs. NMDA preconditioning elevated CA3a c-Fos expression and at 1 and 2 h exceeded markedly that after KA alone. However, at 4 h after KA, NMDA-preconditioned c-Fos induction in CA3a diminished to the same level as that seen after KA alone. The onset of neuronal degeneration was delayed in similar way. While NMDA-induced c-Fos expression in CA3a could be blocked by MK-801 completely, MK-801 and CNQX were both without significant effect on KA-induced c-Fos expression and neuronal damage. In conclusion, inhibition of c-Fos expression and onset of neuronal damage in CA3a following icv KA injection might be transiently delayed by i.c.v. NMDA preconditioning.Brain research 01/2009; 1256:162-72. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are associated with neuronal loss and correlate with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease, but how NFTs relate to neuronal death is not clear. We studied cell death in Tg4510 mice that reversibly express P301L mutant human tau and accumulate NFTs using in vivo multiphoton imaging of neurofibrillary pathology, propidium iodide (PI) incorporation into cells, caspase activation, and DNA labeling. We first observed that in live mice, a minority of neurons were labeled with the caspase probe or with PI fluorescence. These markers of cell stress were localized in the same cells and appeared specifically within NFT-bearing neurons. Contrary to expectations, the PI-stained neurons did not die during a day of observation; the presence of Hoechst-positive nuclei in them on the subsequent day indicated that the NFT-associated membrane disruption, as suggested by PI staining, and caspase activation do not lead to immediate death of neurons in this tauopathy model. This unique combination of in vivo multiphoton imaging with markers of cell death and pathological alteration is a powerful tool for investigating neuronal damage associated with neurofibrillary pathology.Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 07/2009; 68(7):757-61. · 4.35 Impact Factor