Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency is caused by mutations in the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein.
ABSTRACT Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease which maps to chromosome 8q13. AVED patients have an impaired ability to incorporate alpha-tocopherol into lipoproteins secreted by the liver, a function putatively attributable to the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP). Here we report the identification of three frame-shift mutations in the alpha TTP gene. A 744delA mutation accounts for 68% of the mutant alleles in the 17 families analysed and appears to have spread in North Africa and Italy. This mutation correlates with a severe phenotype but alters only the C-terminal tenth of the protein. Two other mutations were found in single families. The finding of alpha TTP gene mutations in AVED patients substantiates the therapeutic role of vitamin E as a protective agent against neurological damage in this disease.
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ABSTRACT: BNIP-2 shows high homology with the Cayman ataxia protein, caytaxin, which functions as a kinesin-1 adapter bridging cargos and kinesin light chains (KLCs). BNIP-2 is known to induce cell shape changes when over-expressed in culture cells, but its physiological functions are mostly unknown. BNIP-2 interacts with KLC through the conserved WED motif in the N-terminal region of BNIP-2. Interaction with KLC and transportation by kinesin-1 are essential for over-expressed BNIP-2 to elongate cells and induce cellular processes. Endogenous BNIP-2 localizes to the Golgi apparatus, early and recycling endosomes and mitochondria, aligned with microtubules, and moves at a speed compatible with kinesin-1 transportation. The CRAL-TRIO domain of BNIP-2 specifically interacts with phosphatidylserine, and the vesicular localization of BNIP-2 requires interaction with this phospholipid. BNIP-2 mutants which do not bind phosphatidylserine do not induce morphological changes in cells. These data show that similar to caytaxin, BNIP-2 is a kinesin-1 adapter involved in vesicular transportation in the cytoplasm and that association with cargos depends on interaction of the CRAL-TRIO domain with membrane phosphatidylserine. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.Genes to Cells 12/2014; 20(2). DOI:10.1111/gtc.12209 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that primarily protects cells from damage associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which increases during ageing and is considered a major contributor to neurodegeneration. High plasma vitamin E levels were repeatedly associated with better cognitive performance. Due to its antioxidant properties, the ability of vitamin E to prevent or delay cognitive decline has been tested in clinical trials in both ageing population and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The difficulty in performing precise and uniform human studies is mostly responsible for the inconsistent outcomes reported in the literature. Therefore, the benefit of vitamin E as a treatment for neurodegenerative disorders is still under debate. In this review, we focus on those studies that mostly have contributed to clarifying the exclusive function of vitamin E in relation to brain ageing and AD.Nutrients 12/2014; 6(12):5453-5472. DOI:10.3390/nu6125453 · 3.15 Impact Factor
Article: Ataxia.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ataxia is a disorder of balance and coordination resulted from dysfunctions involving cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. While a variety of disorders can cause secondary ataxias, the list of genetic causes of ataxias is growing longer. Genetic abnormalities may involve mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, abnormal mechanisms of DNA repair, possible protein misfolding, and abnormalities in cytoskeletal proteins. Few ataxias are fully treatable while hope for efficacious gene therapy and pharmacotherapy is emerging. A discussion of the ataxias is presented here with brief mention of acquired ataxias, and a greater focus on inherited ataxias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Neurologic Clinics 02/2015; 33(1):225-248. DOI:10.1016/j.ncl.2014.09.004 · 1.61 Impact Factor