Connective tissue proliferation and growth factors in animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
ABSTRACT The difference in the lifespan of dy and mdx mice could be due to different muscle regeneration capabilities. In mdx an involvement of bFGF in stimulating regeneration has been postulated. The aim of our work was to detect the presence, and to study the distribution, of muscular and connective tissue growth factors in mdx and dy mice at different stages of muscle pathology. From 7 to 10 weeks of age the difference between the two dystrophic mice becomes evident. At 13 weeks the dy mouse presents a predominance of fibrosis and degenerative muscular phenomena while the main pathological feature in mdx mouse is the muscle regeneration. In both animal models fibrosis proliferation is correlated to the presence of EGF and its receptor and TGF beta 1. bFGF was localized to regenerating and degenerating fibers in both dy and mdx mice. The bFGF presented a normal pattern in mdx mice at 20 weeks when regenerative and degenerative phenomena were no longer present. Our data suggest that growth factors could influence the outcome of muscular regenerative and degenerative processes.
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ABSTRACT: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular human disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. The mdx mouse lacks dystrophin protein, yet does not exhibit the debilitating DMD phenotype. Investigating compensatory mechanisms in the mdx mouse may shed new insights into modifying DMD pathogenesis. This study targets two metabolic genes, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) which are required for creatine synthesis. We show that GAMT and AGAT mRNA are up-regulated 5.4- and 1.9-fold respectively in adult mdx muscle compared to C57. In addition, GAMT protein expression is up-regulated at least 2.5-fold in five different muscles of mdx vs. control. Furthermore, we find GAMT immunoreactivity in up to 80% of mature mdx muscle fibers in addition to small regenerating fibers and rare revertants; while GAMT immunoreactivity is equal to background levels in all muscle fibers of mature C57 mice. The up-regulation of the creatine synthetic pathway may help maintain muscle creatine levels and limit cellular energy failure in leaky mdx skeletal muscles. These results may help better understand the mild phenotype of the mdx mouse and may offer new treatment horizons for DMD.Neuromuscular Disorders 09/2007; 17(8):639-50. · 2.80 Impact Factor
Article: Early onset of inflammation and later involvement of TGFbeta in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To identify stage-specific induction of molecular pathology pathways in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We performed mRNA profiling using muscles from fetopsies, infants (aged 8 to 10 months), and symptomatic patients (aged 5 to 12 years) with DMD, and age- and sex-matched controls. We performed immunohistochemistry to determine changes at the protein level and protein localization. Activated tissue dendritic cells, expression of toll-like receptor 7, and strong induction of nuclear factor-kappaB pathways occurred soon after birth in DMD muscle. Two muscle wasting pathways, atrogin-1 and myostatin, were not induced at any stage of the disease. Normal muscle showed accumulation of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism capacity with increased age, but this accumulation failed in DMD. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta pathway was strongly induced in symptomatic patients, with expression of TGFbeta type II receptor and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 proteins on subsets of mature DMD myofibers. Our data show stage-specific remodeling of human dystrophin-deficient muscle, with inflammatory pathways predominating in the presymptomatic stages and acute activation of TGFbeta and failure of metabolic pathways later in the disease.Neurology 10/2005; 65(6):826-34. · 8.31 Impact Factor
Article: Cardiomyopathy in dystrophin-deficient hearts is prevented by expression of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase transgene in the myocardium.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Null mutation of dystrophin causes the lethal pathology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in which there is progressive pathology of skeletal and cardiac muscles. A large proportion of DMD patient deaths are attributable to cardiac dysfunction associated with ventricular fibrosis, arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities, although the relationships between the dystrophin mutation and the cardiac defects are unknown. Here, we tested whether cardiac pathology in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice can be corrected by the elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) by the myocardium. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were produced in which there was myocardial expression of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) transgene. Expression of the transgene prevented the progressive ventricular fibrosis of mdx mice and greatly reduced myocarditis. Electrocardiographs (ECG) attained by radiotelemetry of freely ambulatory mice showed that mdx mice displayed cardiac abnormalities that are characteristic of DMD patients, including deep Q-waves, diminished S:R ratios, polyphasic R-waves and frequent premature ventricular contractions. All of these ECG abnormalities in mdx mice were improved or corrected by nNOS transgene expression. In addition, defects in mdx cardiac autonomic function, which were reflected by decreased heart rate variability, were significantly reduced by nNOS transgene expression. These findings indicate that increasing NO production by dystrophic hearts may have therapeutic value.Human Molecular Genetics 08/2005; 14(14):1921-33. · 7.64 Impact Factor