Relationship of regional body composition to bone mineral density in college females

Department of Kinesiology, Texas Woman's University, Denton 76204, USA.
Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 02/1995; 27(2):178-82. DOI: 10.1249/00005768-199502000-00005
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) in college females. Subjects were 12 nonathletic females (< 3 h.wk-1 of exercise) and 46 female varsity athletes: basketball (N = 14), volleyball (N = 13), gymnastics (N = 13), and tennis (N = 6). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to determine BMD and body composition. The mean (+/- SD) age, height, weight, and menarche for the subjects were 19.9 +/- 2.1 yr, 167.9 +/- 9.4 cm, 62.1 +/- 9.0 kg, and 13.6 +/- 1.7 yr, respectively. Mean lumbar (1.327, femoral neck (1.172, and total body (1.200 BMD of the athletes were significantly greater than nonathletes (P < 0.05) but did not differ among the teams. Significant correlations were found between regional leg BMD and leg lean tissue mass (LTM) (r = 0.59, P < 0.001) and between arm LTM and arm and lumbar BMD (r = 0.47 and 0.56, respectively). Significant correlations were also found between leg fat mass and leg BMD (r = 0.40). However, only regional LTM was a significant predictor of BMD using stepwise multiple regression. In summary, regional LTM appears to be a better predictor of BMD than regional fat mass.

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    • "Overall, the trends that were identified in the present study agree with previous studies that have made between-sport comparisons using whole body measures, such as bone mineral density (Alfredson, Nordstrom, & Lorentzon, 1996, 1997; Nichols et al., 1995; Risser et al., 1990) and skinfold measurements (Gualdi Russo et al., 1992). The differences in fat mass and lean mass between the sports in the present study may have been due to differences in training programmes (Concu & Marcello, 1993); for example, cross-country training programmes likely contribute to findings that runners have lower skinfold measurements (Gualdi Russo et al., 1992). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study aimed to examine the effects of sex and sport on the tissue composition of the distal lower extremity of varsity athletes, in sports that involve repetitive-impact loading patterns. Fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content and wobbling mass were predicted for the leg and leg + foot segments of varsity basketball, cross-country, soccer and volleyball athletes. The absolute masses were normalised to body mass, and also expressed relative to each other as ratios. Females and males differed on most normalised tissue masses and ratios by 11-101%. Characteristic differences were found in the normalised tissue masses across sports, with the lowest and highest values displayed by cross-country and volleyball (female)/basketball (male) athletes, respectively. Conversely, cross-country athletes had the highest wobbling mass:bone mineral content and lean mass:bone mineral content ratios for females by 10% and 16%, respectively. The differences between sports may be explained in part by different impact loading patterns characteristic of each sport. Tissue mass ratio differences between sports may suggest that the ratios of soft to rigid tissues are optimised by the body in response to typical loading patterns, and may therefore be useful in investigations of distal lower extremity injury mechanisms in athletes.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 09/2013; 32(6). DOI:10.1080/02640414.2013.837223 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    • "The main finding of this study was that TPs had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs, even though the NTPs participated in significant amounts of nontennis physical activity. This result supports previous research findings suggesting that tennis players have significantly greater femoral neck BMD than controls [12, 21]. However, tennis players in the previous research were adult male and female tennis players. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in bone mineral density (BMD) among adolescent female tennis players (TPs) and nontennis players (NTPs) and to assess body composition as a predictor variable of BMD. Nineteen female TPs and 19 female NTPs, ages 14 to 18 years, participated in this study. Lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, forearms BMD, and body composition were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lumbar spine and total hip BMD measurements for TP were greater than NTP. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.37 and 0.12, resp.). TP had significantly greater femoral neck BMD than NTPs (P = 0.02). This difference might play an important role in preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures at the hip later in life.
    Journal of Osteoporosis 07/2012; 2012:423910. DOI:10.1155/2012/423910
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    • "Over two seasons, the author did not fi nd any signifi cant diff erences in fat mass percentage by using such feedback as to women players' dietary intake. The comparison of results from various studies is complicated by the use of diff erent methods for BC assessment: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Carbuhn, Fernandez, Bragg, Green, & Crouse, 2010; Nichols et al., 1995) air displacement plethysmography (Anderson , 2010), bioelectrical impedance analysis (Frasson, Diefenthaeler, & Vaz, 2009; Malá et al., 2010), skinfolds (Almeida & Soares, 2003; Bayios, Bergeles, Apostoldis, Noutsos, & Koskolou, 2006; Malosaouris et al., 2008; Melrose, Spaniol, & Bohling, 2007) and hydrodensitometry (Ferris, Signorile, & Caruso, 1995; Fleck et al., 1985; Kreger & Brown, 2008; Tsunawake et al., 2003). Despite the above-mentioned results of several BC indicators in women volleyball players there is little knowledge about BC indicators in elite teams (participants in the Champions League, Olympic Games, World Championship, European Championship and winners of prestigious club leagues). "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In sport and in top performance sport in particular, the continuous monitoring of body compo-sition (BC) may regulate the training process, aff ecting positively athletesʼ top form. BC is, therefore, considered to be one of the components of the physical fi tness of athletes. Research studies dealing with BC in women volleyball players are often focused on a lower performance level when compared with the submitted study. The problem in the fi eld of results comparison is with the variety in the methodology used in BC assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to describe the body composition (BC) profi le of top performance women volleyball players and verify whether there are diff erences in the chosen parameters between them. The exam-ined group consists of women volleyball players of two teams which were participants in the European Champions League (T1, n = 12; T2, n = 9). METHODS: By means of multifrequency bioimpedance analysis, we observed Lean Body Mass (LBM), Fat Mass (FM), Body Cell Mass (BCM), relative BCM (BCMrel), ExtraCellular Mass (ECM) and their mutual ratio (of ECM/ BCM), Cell Quote (CQ), phase angle (α), Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), Total Body Water (TBW) while making a distinction between ExtraCellular (ECW) and IntraCellular (ICW) Water. One-way ANOVA and Cohen's d were used for the comparison of diff erences between the monitored teams. RESULTS: Diff erences in the examined parameters of body composition between the screened samples were not statistically signifi cant (p > 0.05). Eff ect size revealed moderate diff erences for other parameters (α, ECM, BCM, ECM/ BCM, BMR, FM and CQ). Fat mass percentage in our women players was lower in comparison to values recorded in women players in most other studies. The relatively high values of TBW, LBM and ECM/BCM in women volleyball players of both teams indicate their good performance capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The body composition profi le revealed the appropriate predispositions of the observed players for their performance in volleyball. The measured parameters of BC corresponding to top performance sport are better than in high performance sport or in the general population. Our values of BC in elite women volleyball players can serve as standards for other athletes attempting to achieve international level.
    01/2011; 41(1). DOI:10.5507/ag.2011.002
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