Relationship of regional body composition to bone mineral density in college females.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between regional body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) in college females. Subjects were 12 nonathletic females (< 3 h.wk-1 of exercise) and 46 female varsity athletes: basketball (N = 14), volleyball (N = 13), gymnastics (N = 13), and tennis (N = 6). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to determine BMD and body composition. The mean (+/- SD) age, height, weight, and menarche for the subjects were 19.9 +/- 2.1 yr, 167.9 +/- 9.4 cm, 62.1 +/- 9.0 kg, and 13.6 +/- 1.7 yr, respectively. Mean lumbar (1.327 g.cm-2), femoral neck (1.172 g.cm-2), and total body (1.200 g.cm-2) BMD of the athletes were significantly greater than nonathletes (P < 0.05) but did not differ among the teams. Significant correlations were found between regional leg BMD and leg lean tissue mass (LTM) (r = 0.59, P < 0.001) and between arm LTM and arm and lumbar BMD (r = 0.47 and 0.56, respectively). Significant correlations were also found between leg fat mass and leg BMD (r = 0.40). However, only regional LTM was a significant predictor of BMD using stepwise multiple regression. In summary, regional LTM appears to be a better predictor of BMD than regional fat mass.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In sport and in top performance sport in particular, the continuous monitoring of body compo-sition (BC) may regulate the training process, aff ecting positively athletesʼ top form. BC is, therefore, considered to be one of the components of the physical fi tness of athletes. Research studies dealing with BC in women volleyball players are often focused on a lower performance level when compared with the submitted study. The problem in the fi eld of results comparison is with the variety in the methodology used in BC assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study is to describe the body composition (BC) profi le of top performance women volleyball players and verify whether there are diff erences in the chosen parameters between them. The exam-ined group consists of women volleyball players of two teams which were participants in the European Champions League (T1, n = 12; T2, n = 9). METHODS: By means of multifrequency bioimpedance analysis, we observed Lean Body Mass (LBM), Fat Mass (FM), Body Cell Mass (BCM), relative BCM (BCMrel), ExtraCellular Mass (ECM) and their mutual ratio (of ECM/ BCM), Cell Quote (CQ), phase angle (α), Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), Total Body Water (TBW) while making a distinction between ExtraCellular (ECW) and IntraCellular (ICW) Water. One-way ANOVA and Cohen's d were used for the comparison of diff erences between the monitored teams. RESULTS: Diff erences in the examined parameters of body composition between the screened samples were not statistically signifi cant (p > 0.05). Eff ect size revealed moderate diff erences for other parameters (α, ECM, BCM, ECM/ BCM, BMR, FM and CQ). Fat mass percentage in our women players was lower in comparison to values recorded in women players in most other studies. The relatively high values of TBW, LBM and ECM/BCM in women volleyball players of both teams indicate their good performance capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The body composition profi le revealed the appropriate predispositions of the observed players for their performance in volleyball. The measured parameters of BC corresponding to top performance sport are better than in high performance sport or in the general population. Our values of BC in elite women volleyball players can serve as standards for other athletes attempting to achieve international level.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to verify if the practice of volleyball during youth and later in life could affect the bone mass of postmenopausal women. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine (L1, L2, L3, L4, and L2-L4) and proximal femur (neck, trochanteric, total femur, and Ward's triangle) of two groups of healthy, Brazilian Caucasian women. One group (n = 21) consisted of veteran athletes who played competitive volleyball during their second decade of life and kept playing for at least the last 12 months. The control group (n = 21) consisted of women who had never been athletes. The groups were similar in age, Body Mass Index (BMI), duration of menopause, and hormonal replacement therapy. As shown in the table, the athletes presented a higher BMD when compared to the control group independently of the region studied. Such results indicate that the practice of volleyball helped to maintain the bone mass in postmenopausal women, including in the regions more susceptible to fractures.Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 06/1999; 5(3):86-92. DOI:10.1590/S1517-86921999000300006 · 0.16 Impact Factor