Article

Cloning of p57KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with unique domain structure and tissue distribution.

Cell Biology and Genetics Program, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Genes & Development (Impact Factor: 12.64). 04/1995; 9(6):639-49. DOI: 10.1101/gad.9.6.639
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Progression through the cell cycle is catalyzed by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and is negatively controlled by CDK inhibitors (CDIs). We have isolated a new member of the p21CIP1/p27KIP1 CDI family and named it p57KIP2 to denote its apparent molecular mass and higher similarity to p27KIP1. Three distinct p57 cDNAs were cloned that differ at the start of their open reading frames and correspond to messages generated by the use of distinct splice acceptor sites. p57 is distinguished from p21 and p27 by its unique domain structure. Four distinct domains follow the heterogeneous amino-terminal region and include, in order, a p21/p27-related CDK inhibitory domain, a proline-rich (28% proline) domain, an acidic (36% glutamic or aspartic acid) domain, and a carboxy-terminal nuclear targeting domain that contains a putative CDK phosphorylation site and has sequence similarity to p27 but not to p21. Most of the acidic domain consists of a novel, tandemly repeated 4-amino acid motif. p57 is a potent inhibitor of G1- and S-phase CDKs (cyclin E-cdk2, cyclin D2-cdk4, and cyclin A-cdk2) and, to lesser extent, of the mitotic cyclin B-Cdc2. In mammalian cells, p57 localizes to the nucleus, associates with G1 CDK components, and its overexpression causes a complete cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In contrast to the widespread expression of p21 and p27 in human tissues, p57 is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, as a 1.5-kb species in placenta and at lower levels in various other tissues and a 7-kb mRNA species observed in skeletal muscle and heart. The expression pattern and unique domain structure of p57 suggest that this CDI may play a specialized role in cell cycle control.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
71 Views
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Precise control of cell-cycle progression is believed to be critical for normal development, while oncogenesis may be a direct result of its disturbance. Cell-cycle progression is regulated predominantly by a series of serine/threonine kinases, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The activities of the CDKs are controlled by a variety of mechanisms, and a group of molecules that inhibit CDK activity, CDK inhibitors (CKIs), has recently become the focus of interest, particularly in the fields of development and tumorigenesis. To date, seven CKIs have been identified in mammals and categorized into two families, the Cip/Kip and Ink4 families. The Cip/Kip family is well conserved phylogenetically, suggesting that it is biologically important. Despite the structural and biochemical similarities among the Cip/Kip members, the phenotypes of knockout mice of each Cip/Kip member are surprisingly different, which suggests that the Cip/Kip CKIs have a variety of physiological functions. In this review, the biological roles of Cip/Kip CKIs in development and tumor suppression are discussed. BioEssays 20:1020–1029, 1998. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    BioEssays 12/1998; 20(12). · 4.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genomic imprinting is an epigenetically regulated mechanism leading to parental-origin allele-specific expression. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disease related to 11p15.5 genetic and epigenetic alterations, among them loss-of-function CDKN1C mutations. Intriguing is that CDKN1C gain-of-function variations were recently found in patients with IMAGe syndrome (intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, congenital adrenal hypoplasia, and genital anomalies). BWS and IMAGe share an imprinted mode of inheritance; familial analysis demonstrated the presence of the phenotype exclusively when the mutant CDKN1C allele is inherited from the mother. Interestingly, both IMAGe and BWS are characterized by growth disturbances, although with opposite clinical phenotypes; IMAGe patients display growth restriction whereas BWS patients display overgrowth. CDKN1C codifies for CDKN1C/KIP2, a nuclear protein and potent tight-binding inhibitor of several cyclin/Cdk complexes, playing a role in maintenance of the nonproliferative state of cells. The mirror phenotype of BWS and IMAGe can be, at least in part, explained by the effect of mutations on protein functions. All the IMAGe-associated mutations are clustered in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-binding domain of CDKN1C and cause a dramatic increase in the stability of the protein, which probably results in a functional gain of growth inhibition properties. In contrast, BWS mutations are not clustered within a single domain, are loss-of-function, and promote cell proliferation. CDKN1C is an example of allelic heterogeneity associated with opposite syndromes.
    The Application of Clinical Genetics 01/2014; 7:169-75.

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from