The Matrix model of outpatient stimulant abuse treatment: evidence of efficacy

UCLA Department of Psychiatry, USA.
Journal of Addictive Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.46). 02/1994; 13(4):129-41.
Source: PubMed


The current study examined the effectiveness of Matrix outpatient stimulant treatment. We associated 146 subjects' in-treatment abstinence data, treatment lengths, and weekly treatment activities to their 6-month abstinence outcomes as part of an interim analysis of a NIDA treatment demonstration project. Results indicated that the pretreatment subject characteristics of ethnicity and drug of choice significantly associated with treatment outcome using Matrix model treatment. Findings also demonstrated a treatment dose/abstinence response such that those who received longer Matrix treatment episodes demonstrated better abstinence outcomes. Further, in-treatment abstinence status and treatment length significantly associated with drug use status at follow-up. This set of findings provides evidence for the value of Matrix treatment and allows for these outcome data to be compared with reports on recent psychosocial treatments for stimulant dependence. This study also provides direction for evaluating longer term effectiveness for these types of drug treatments.

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    • "Methamphetamine dependence directly or indirectly affects millions of Americans, and despite the efficacy of current treatments for some patients, relapse remains a significant problem (Huber et al, 1997; Rawson et al, 1999, 2004; Shoptaw et al, 1994). These studies, along with many others, underscore the challenge inherent in providing effective treatment to methamphetamine users. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bupropion is an antidepressant with stimulant properties, which inhibits the reuptake of dopamine (DA) and norepinepherine, and is purported to enhance DA neurotransmission. Bupropion is considered an appealing candidate medication for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. The current laboratory study was set forth to assess the impact of bupropion treatment on the subjective effects produced by methamphetamine in the laboratory. We also assessed the effects of bupropion treatment on craving elicited by exposure to videotaped methamphetamine cues. A total of 26 participants were enrolled and 20 completed the entire study (n=10 placebo and n=10 bupropion, parallel groups design). Bupropion treatment was associated with reduced ratings of 'any drug effect' (p<0.02), and 'high' (p<0.02) following methamphetamine administration. There was also a significant bupropion-by-cue exposure interaction on General Craving Scale total score (p<0.002), and on the Behavioral Intention subscale (p<0.001). Overall, the data reveal that bupropion reduced acute methamphetamine-induced subjective effects and reduced cue-induced craving. Importantly, these data provide a rationale for the evaluation of bupropion in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.
    Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2006; 31(7):1537-44. DOI:10.1038/sj.npp.1300979 · 7.05 Impact Factor
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    • "Content of the treatment program is tailored to individual needs, although basic program elements are structured and manualized. Previous results from a number of open trials using the Matrix approach have been published in the research literature (Huber et al., 1997; Rawson et al., 1995; Rawson, Huber, et al., 2002; Shoptaw et al., 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (MA) is a major public health and criminal justice problem in much of the Western and Midwestern US, and its use seems to be increasing east of the Mississippi River. MA use can produce significant psychiatric and medical consequences, including psychosis, dependence, overdose, and death. Cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management are among the most promising approaches for treatment of MA abuse and dependence. A multisite study evaluating the Matrix Model of outpatient treatment will soon be completed to provide data on this manualized approach. An ambitious program of pharmacotherapy development research is currently being sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in geographic areas significantly affected by MA use. The development of treatments for MA-related problems is particularly critical for a number of user groups including MA users who experience persistent psychosis, pregnant women and women with children, gay and bisexual men, and MA users involved in the criminal justice system.
    Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 10/2002; 23(2):145-50. DOI:10.1016/S0740-5472(02)00256-8 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research examining the demographic and substance use characteristics of illicit drug use in the United States has typically failed to consider differences in routes of administration or has exclusively focused on a single route of administration?injection drug use. Data from National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to compare past-year injection drug users and non-injection drug users' routes of administration of those who use the three drugs most commonly injected in the United States: heroin, methamphetamine, and cocaine. Injection drug users were more likely than those using drugs via other routes to be older (aged 35 and older), unemployed, possess less than a high school education, and reside in rural areas. IDUs also exhibited higher rates of abuse/dependence, perceived need for substance abuse treatment, and co-occurring physical and psychological problems. Fewer differences between IDUs and non-IDUs were observed for heroin users compared with methamphetamine or cocaine users.
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