Assessing the quality of Randomised Controlled Trials: An Annotated Bibliography of Scales and Checklists

Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Loeb Medical Research Institute, Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
Controlled Clinical Trials 03/1995; 16(1):62-73. DOI: 10.1016/0197-2456(94)00031-W
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is important and relatively new. Quality gives us an estimate of the likelihood that the results are a valid estimate of the truth. We present an annotated bibliography of scales and checklists developed to assess quality. Twenty-five scales and nine checklists have been developed to assess quality. The checklists are most useful in providing investigators with guidelines as to what information should be included in reporting RCTs. The scales give readers a quantitative index of the likelihood that the reported methodology and results are free of bias. There are several shortcomings with these scales. Future scale development is likely to be most beneficial if questions common to all trials are assessed, if the scale is easy to use, and if it is developed with sufficient rigor.

  • Source
    • "In order to compare the quality of the included studies with the previous systematic review of Vancampfort et al. (2012) and to assess for potential bias in the trials, each study was evaluated with the previously validated 5-point Jadad scale (Jadad et al., 1996; Clark et al., 1999; Moher et al., 1995). A score of 0 to 5 is assigned, with higher scores indicating higher quality in the conduct or reporting of a trial. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This systematic review summarizes the most recent evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) considering the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions (aerobic exercises, strength exercises, relaxation training, basic body awareness exercises, or a combination of these) within the multidisciplinary management of schizophrenia. Two authors searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Library considering RCTs published from July 1, 2011-October 1, 2014. Thirteen RCTs representing 549 participants met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the results demonstrate that aerobic exercise significantly reduces psychiatric symptoms, potentially improves mental and physical quality of life and reduces metabolic risk and weight. Specifically, yoga reduces psychiatric symptoms, whilst Tai-chi and progressive muscle relaxation may also have benefits to patients. Two RCTs reported on adverse events. No adverse event was observed supporting the notion that physical therapy is safe in people with schizophrenia. There was considerable heterogeneity in the design, implementation and outcomes in the included studies precluding a meaningful meta-analysis. In general, the quality of physical therapy RCTS is improving and current research demonstrates that physical therapy approaches are valuable interventions and can help improve the psychiatric, physical and quality of life of people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.083 · 2.68 Impact Factor
    • "It is widely accepted that the quality of a study may affect its results (Chambless & Hollon, 1998; Lincoln & Rief, 2004; Moher et al., 1995; Schulz, Chalmers, Hayes, & Altman, 1995). Aspects of study quality may influence the calculated effect size directly or indirectly, for example, the calculated effect size may increase when study dropouts are not included in the analyses or may decrease when several outcome domains are considered (see Liebherz, Schmidt, & Rabung, submitted for review). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although it is widely accepted that the quality of a study may affect its results, there is no agreed specific standard for assessing the quality of psychotherapy outcome studies. This study aims to review the existing variety of relevant quality assessment criteria. We identified relevant quality measures based on a systematic literature search. To determine the specific relevance of the available quality criteria, we consulted experts in the field of psychotherapy outcome research. Nineteen different measures providing 185 different quality criteria were included. Four measures specifically focused psychotherapy studies, none of these were designed for studies without a control group. Experts did judge 20% of the items as "absolutely indispensable." Quality criteria that are exclusively related to the context of psychotherapy research are rare. Further research is required to examine the empirical relation between specific quality criteria and study results.
    Psychotherapy Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/10503307.2015.1044763 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The full texts of selected articles were then considered to extract information . The quality assessment for each article was made based on specific criteria outlined in the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) adapted for cross-sectional studies and the Oxford quality scoring system (Jadad score) for clinical trials [14] [15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective There has been a long history documenting the usage of different vitamin D derivatives as therapy for renal diseases. However, there is no comprehensive assessment of the relation between vitamin D deficiency and risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In addition, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on DN is still unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess these issues by pooling together the results from cross sectional studies and clinical trials. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar was conducted up to September 2014. For cross-sectional studies, odds ratio (OR) was used as a measure of the association between vitamin D status and risk of DN, and for clinical trials mean and standard deviation (SD) of the main outcome (urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR)) in intervention and placebo groups were considered for analysis. Results The final selected articles were published between 2009 and 2014. A total of 3700 and 219 patients were enrolled in observational and interventional studies, respectively. The pooled ORs from 6 cross-sectional studies was 1.80 (95% CI, 1.25 to 2.59; p=0.002) indicating a significant inverse association between serum vitamin D status and risk of nephropathy in diabetic patients. However, the pooled data of UACR levels in clinical trials suggested no significant change following vitamin D supplementation (17.98; 95% CI, -35.35 to 71.32, p=0.51). Conclusion This meta-analysis showed the higher risk of nephropathy in vitamin D deficient diabetic patients. Causality in this association was not supported by pooling together the results of available clinical trials following vitamin D supplementation
    Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2015.04.009 · 3.05 Impact Factor
Show more