There is a critical need for the development of effective substance abuse and dependence treatment programs in prisons and jails. One aspect of treatment provision within this population that has received insufficient research attention is the inclusion of health promotion or wellness programs, including exercise and other health-related lifestyle modification training. Little is known about either the physiological or psychological consequences of such lifestyle modification programs among prisoners with substance use disorders. This study reports the effectiveness of an experimental wellness program included as part of a residential treatment unit in a federal correctional institute in the United States. A sample of 43 female offenders with a history of polysubstance abuse or dependence, who had volunteered to be part of a residential drug treatment program, were evaluated. Changes in health status and perceived psychological well-being between entry into the program and exit after maintaining participation for a minimum of 9 months were assessed. Pretest-posttest comparisons on a variety of physiological parameters indicated that significant improvements had occurred in the physical fitness of the group. Thematic analysis of qualitative self-reports by inmates exiting the program suggested that participants had also experienced significant enhancements in a number of areas pertaining to psychological well-being, including self-esteem, health awareness and concerns, healthy lifestyle adoption, and relapse prevention skills. These results suggest that including health promotion training in drug treatment programs for incarcerated offenders may have beneficial results.
"Self-efficacy is reduced in many SUD patients who repeatedly experience control loss with regard to their consumption behavior. Some authors assume that supervised training can increase body-related self-efficacy by individual dosage and self-paced progression . However, it remains unclear if these changes generalize to other domains and generally increase self-esteem and reduce expectations of failure. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise and physical activity are constantly gaining attention as adjuvant treatment for substance use disorders, supplementing classical pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. The present work reviews studies addressing the therapeutic effects of exercise in alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine abuse/dependence, and illicit drug abuse/dependence. In the field of smoking cessation, evidence is strong for exercise as an effective adjuvant treatment, whereas no generalizable and methodologically strong studies have been published for alcohol and drug treatment so far, allowing only preliminary conclusions about the effectiveness of exercise in these disorders. A couple of potential mechanisms are discussed, by which exercise may act as an effective treatment, as well as future directions for studies investigating exercise as a treatment strategy for substance use disorders.
The Scientific World Journal 05/2012; 2012(5):901741. DOI:10.1100/2012/901741 · 1.73 Impact Factor
"Enhancing one's self-efficacy is likely to result in positive behavior change. The " mastery hypothesis " (Tuson & Sinyor, 1993) suggests that enhanced self-efficacy for exercise (McAuley, Courneya, & Lettunich, 1991; Williams & Cash, 1999) gained from the acquisition of exercise skills may generalize to increased self-efficacy for implementing coping strategies necessary for the maintenance of long-term sobriety (see (Peterson & Johnstone, 1995). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol use disorders are a major public health concern. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of a number of different treatments for alcohol dependence, relapse remains a major problem. Healthy lifestyle changes may contribute to long-term maintenance of recovery, and interventions targeting physical activity, in particular, may be especially valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment. In this article, the authors discuss the rationale and review potential mechanisms of action whereby exercise might benefit alcohol dependent patients in recovery. They then describe the development of a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program as an adjunctive intervention for alcohol dependent patients in recovery. Preliminary data from a pilot study (N=19) are presented, and the overall significance of this research effort is discussed.
"Studies examining the efficacy of physical fitness programs in inpatient treatment facilities have also reported that exercise decreases depression and anxiety risk factors that are associated with relapse (Frankel and Murphy, 1974; Palmer et al., 1988). In a residential correctional facility for federal drug offenders, a wellness program that emphasized physical fitness produced improvements in several areas related to psychological well-being, including self-esteem, health awareness, healthy lifestyle adoption, and relapse prevention skills (Peterson and Johnstone, 1995). Finally, in one of the few studies that examined relapse to substance use after the termination of active treatment, a thrice weekly exercise program significantly increased abstinence rates in recovering alcoholics from 38% to 69% after 3 months (Sinyor et al., 1982). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 07/2008; 98(1-2):129-35. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.05.006 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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