Matrilysin-inhibitor complexes: common themes among metalloproteases.
ABSTRACT Matrix metalloproteases are a family of enzymes that play critical roles in the physiological and pathological degradation of the extracellular matrix. These enzymes may be important therapeutic targets for the treatment of various diseases where tissue degradation is part of the pathology, such as cancer and arthritis. Matrilysin is the smallest member of this family of enzymes, all of which require zinc for catalytic activity. The first X-ray crystal structures of human matrilysin are presented. Inhibitors of metalloproteases are often characterized by the chemical group that interacts with the active site zinc of the protein. The structures of matrilysin complexed with hydroxamate (maximum resolution 1.9 A), carboxylate (maximum resolution 2.4 A), and sulfodiimine (maximum resolution 2.3 A) inhibitors are presented here and provide detailed information about how each functional group interacts with the catalytic zinc. Only the zinc-coordination group is variable in this series of inhibitors. Examination of these inhibitor-matrilysin complexes emphasizes the dominant role the zinc-coordinating group plays in determining the relative potencies of the inhibitors. The structures of these matrilysin-inhibitor complexes also provide a basis for comparing the catalytic mechanism of MMPs and other metalloproteins.
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ABSTRACT: Nitric Oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels are found to increase in inflammation states and in cancer, and their levels may be reciprocally modulated. Understanding interactions between NO and MMP-9 is of biological and pharmacological relevance and may prove crucial in designing new therapeutics. The reciprocal interaction between NO and MMP-9 have been studied for nearly twenty years but to our knowledge, are yet to be the subject of a review. This review provides a summary of published data regarding the complex and sometimes contradictory effects of NO on MMP-9. We also analyse molecular mechanisms modulating and mediating NO-MMP-9 interactions. Finally, a potential therapeutic relevance of these interactions is presented.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.12.006 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Membrane type 1 metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-anchored, zinc-dependent protease. MT1-MMP is an important mediator of cell migration and invasion, and overexpression of this enzyme has been correlated with the malignancy of various tumor types. Therefore, modulators of MT1-MMP activity are proposed to possess therapeutic potential in numerous invasive diseases. Here we report the inhibition mode of MT1-MMP by LEM-2/15 antibody, which targets a surface epitope of MT1-MMP. Specifically, the crystal structures of Fab LEM-2/15 in complex with the MT1-MMP surface antigen suggest that conformational swiveling of the enzyme surface loop is required for effective binding and consequent inhibition of MT1-MMP activity on the cell membrane. This inhibition mechanism appears to be effective in controlling active MT1-MMP in endothelial cells and at the leading edge of migratory cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.