Article

Influence on fetal growth of exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy.

Department of Pediatrics, Clinic Hospital, Spain.
Acta Paediatrica (Impact Factor: 1.84). 03/1995; 84(2):118-21. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1995.tb13592.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We analysed the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy on fetal growth parameters in 129 term newborns. Children were classified into four depending on exposure on the basis of a questionnaire completed by the mother. The results confirmed that tobacco smoking reduced weight, length, cranial and thoracic perimeters at birth when exposure was due to either active or passive smoking. Weight deficits of infants whose mothers smoked heavily (458 g) were higher than those whose mothers were exposed to passive smoking (192 g). We conclude that passive smoking is a very important variable and should be taken into account in any study of neonatal growth parameters.

0 Followers
 · 
80 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and aim: Maternal smoking and body mass index (BMI) affect the somatic classifications of neonates based on birth weight, length, and head circumference. Here we investigate the somatic classifications of neonates based on weight-for-length and Rohrer's ponderal index. Material and Methods: Singleton neonates (n = 433643; data from the German perinatal survey of 1998-2000) were classified as small, appropriate or large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, LGA) based on the 10th and 90th population percentiles of weight-for-length (weight/length) and ponderal index (weight/length(3)). Maternal BMI was classified as underweight (< 18.5kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5-24.99 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.99 kg/m(2)), or obese (>= 30 kg/m(2)). Smoking during pregnancy was categorized as 0, 1-7, 8-14, or >= 15 cigarettes per day. The somatic classification of neonates was compared between different maternal BMI and smoking groups. Results: Classifying neonates by weight-for-length we found that the SGA rate was greater for underweight women (16.3%) and smaller for overweight (7.5%) and obese women (7.0%) compared with the normal weight reference population (9.9%, all data for non-smokers). Furthermore, SGA rates increased with increasing cigarette consumption. The combination of smoking >= 15 cigarettes per day and being underweight was associated with a very high SGA rate of 35.7%. Classifying neonates according to ponderal index showed qualitatively similar but smaller changes: here smoking >= 15 cigarettes per day and being underweight was associated with an SGA rate of 14.4%. Conclusions: The somatic classification of neonates according to weight-for-length illustrates the effects of maternal BMI and smoking more clearly than the classification according to the ponderal index.
    Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 11/2011; 71(11):973-978. DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1280426 · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The problem starts before conception since active smoking reduces the sperm count and fertility. The fetus is affected if the pregnant woman is passively exposed to tobacco smoke but even more so if she herself smokes cigarettes. The infant and toddler cannot actively prevent his or her exposure and even school-age children are usually powerless against smoking adults. In adolescence active smoking is often perceived as a sort of initiation rite. Discos and other meeting places of youngsters range highest in nicotine concentrations. Numerous health effects of all these various exposures are well established. This paper sets out to summarize existing exposure data (focusing mainly on European studies) and established exposure-effect estimates. This allows to calculate attributable risks for low birth weight, respiratory illness, middle ear diseases and mortality. Per 1000 live births in Europe there are to be expected approximately 5 births with low birth weight at term, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery due to smoking in pregnancy each. The attributable number of cases of stillbirth and sudden infants' death syndrome are about one magnitude lower. Odds Ratios of children's diseases associated with passive smoking (ETS exposure) by their mothers are substantially lower. But since the number of exposed pregnancies are higher the number of attributable cases is in the same order of magnitude as for active smoking in pregnancy. Postnatal exposure of children to parental smoking causes approximately 10% of respiratory and middle ear diseases.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growth at birth and during infancy predicts several outcomes in the immediate future as well as in the long term. Weight and height are commonly used surrogates of growth, however, infants and young children are constantly growing unlike adults. Hence, weight and height alone are insufficient measures of growth if the time component is not associated with them. Recent studies have investigated the relationship between indoor air pollution and growth using height and weight. In this commentary, I have argued using a directed acyclic graph, that a causal association between indoor pollution exposure and growth at birth cannot be established unless birth weight is adjusted for gestational age. Furthermore, to make any causal inference between growth during the first few years of life and indoor exposure, in addition to age standardization, studies must also account for fetal growth to discount any continuation of prenatal effects, which may be in the causal pathway. A careful consideration is warranted from future studies investigating these relationships.
    11/2013; 2(4):31-5. DOI:10.5409/wjcp.v2.i4.31