Influence on fetal growth of exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy.
ABSTRACT We analysed the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy on fetal growth parameters in 129 term newborns. Children were classified into four depending on exposure on the basis of a questionnaire completed by the mother. The results confirmed that tobacco smoking reduced weight, length, cranial and thoracic perimeters at birth when exposure was due to either active or passive smoking. Weight deficits of infants whose mothers smoked heavily (458 g) were higher than those whose mothers were exposed to passive smoking (192 g). We conclude that passive smoking is a very important variable and should be taken into account in any study of neonatal growth parameters.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to assess cerebral mass, based on head circumference measurements in neonates exposed to tobacco smoke in utero, and to determine the relative proportions of the cerebral and body mass. The study included 147 neonates born in the period 2003-2004 at the Princess Anna Mazowiecka University Hospital and admitted to the Neonatal and Intensive Care Department of the Medical University in Warsaw. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of maternal status as active, passive, or nonsmokers determined by maternal urinary cotinine concentration and a questionnaire. Neonates whose mothers were active smokers throughout the whole period of pregnancy had a lower head circumference and in consequence a lower cerebral mass significantly more frequently when compared with those whose mothers were nonsmokers, P= 0.002. (Median difference in cerebral mass was 48.27 g.) The risk of lower cerebral mass was 3.9 (1.4-10.8, CI 95%) in the group of neonates whose mothers actively smoked cigarettes during pregnancy. A negative correlation was seen between cerebral mass and maternal urinary cotinine concentration (correlation coefficient r=-23, P= 0.006). The ratio of the cerebral to body mass was similar for neonates in all three groups. Active smoking during pregnancy had a negative effect on the cerebral mass of the neonate, however no such effect was observed in neonates whose mothers were passive smokers. The deficiency in cerebral mass increased with greater smoking intensity. Active smoking by the mother during pregnancy inhibits the growth of the brain as well as that of the body mass of the neonate.05/2012; 2(3):243-8. DOI:10.1002/brb3.49
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ABSTRACT: Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production.Toxicology 04/2005; 208(1):133-9. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2004.11.016 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine if the frontal-occipital head circumference correlates with brain volume on CT and to investigate correlations between the volumes of different brain subdivisions in live neonates. Records were studied from 27 neonates with anatomically normal head CT-scans which were ordered for clinical reasons, and which were performed at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Clinical data were abstracted from medical records. Brain volumes were estimated by digitizing the structures of interest on each slice of head CT-scans. In this sample of 27 infants with a mean birth weight of 3000.4 +/- 668 g, mean head circumference of 33.5 +/- 1.8 cm, and mean gestational age of 37 weeks and 4 days +/- 24 days, the mean of total brain volume was 333.0 +/- 78.3 ml. The correlation between clinically measured head circumference and total brain volume was 0.55 (P < 0.003). Regression of total brain volume on head circumference and its second and third powers accounted for 43% of the variation in total brain volume. Other predictor variables, namely infant race, sex, gestational age, and maternal age, were not significant in this regression once head circumference was included. The slope of the cubic function of head circumference as a predictor of brain volume was greatest below the mean head circumference of 33.5 cm. Brain volume leveled off at head circumferences greater than the mean. Head circumference is a powerful predictor of total brain volume in the neonate: below the approximate head-circumference mean of 33.5 cm, smaller head circumference indicates smaller total brain volume.Early Human Development 10/1999; 56(1):17-29. DOI:10.1016/S0378-3782(99)00033-X · 1.93 Impact Factor