Cognitive impairment in the nondemented elderly. Results from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.
ABSTRACT To describe a population that was categorized as "cognitively impaired not demented" (CIND) and to examine the utility of some of the proposed criteria for describing this degree of cognitive impairment.
Population-based prevalence study of dementia in those subjects who were 65 years and older.
Community and institutional settings in Canada.
Individuals who underwent a clinical evaluation (N = 2914).
Initial screening with the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) to identify potential cognitive impairment; the 3MS was followed by a detailed clinical examination to confirm the presence of dementia and to determine the probable cause. Clinical examinations were performed on all those subjects who were residing in institutions, those in the community with a 3MS score less than 78, and a sample of those in the community with a 3MS score of 78 or more. Neuropsychological testing was performed as part of the clinical examination when the 3MS score was 50 or more. At the conclusion of the assessment, subjects were categorized as being cognitively normal, CIND, and demented.
Frequency of a diagnosis of CIND; demographical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of cognitively normal and CIND subjects and those with early and late dementia; and proportion of subjects who were CIND and met the proposed criteria.
Subjects who were categorized as CIND were common and fell between cognitively normal subjects and those with dementia in terms of age, 3MS score, general intellectual function, and performance of daily activities. Because of the restrictive inclusion and exclusion criteria, the proposed criteria for cognitive impairment described only 30% of our subjects who were CIND.
Subjects who were categorized as CIND appeared to be distinct from and intermediate between subjects with dementia and cognitively normal subjects. Most individuals did not meet the criteria that were evaluated for describing this group. While the various criteria that were evaluated may accurately define a select subset of cognitively impaired individuals, the natural history and prognosis of such groups, currently unknown, may not be generalizable to the larger population of subjects who are CIND. Further work is needed to clearly define this group, and longitudinal studies are required to determine an outcome.
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ABSTRACT: The rapid aging of the Chinese population has spurred interest in research about the cause and prevention of dementia and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This review summarizes the last decade of research in China about MCI. Extensive research about the epidemiology, neuropsychological characteristics, diagnosis, genetic etiology, neuroimaging and electrophysiological changes, and treatment of MCI has provided some new insights but few breakthroughs. Further advances in the prevention and treatment of MCI will require a greater emphasis on multi-disciplinary prospective studies with large, representative samples that use standardized methods to assess and monitor changes in cognitive functioning over time.Shanghai archives of psychiatry. 02/2014; 26(1):4-14.
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ABSTRACT: Objective The study was conducted to explore the effects of EGb 761® (Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany) on neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and cognition in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).Methods One hundred and sixty patients with MCI who scored at least 6 on the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were enrolled in this double-blind, multi-center trial and randomized to receive 240 mg EGb 761 daily or placebo for a period of 24 weeks. Effects on NPS were assessed using the NPI, the state sub-score of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Further outcome measures were the Trail-Making Test (A/B) for cognition and global ratings of change. Statistical analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle.ResultsThe NPI composite score decreased by 7.0 ± 4.5 (mean, standard deviation) points in the EGb 761-treated group and by 5.5 ± 5.2 in the placebo group (p = 0.001). Improvement by at least 4 points was found in 78.8% of patients treated with EGb 761 and in 55.7% of those receiving placebo (p = 0.002). Superiority of EGb 761 over placebo (p < 0.05) was also found for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score, the informants' global impression of change, and both Trail-Making Test scores. There were statistical trends favoring EGb 761 in the Geriatric Depression Scale and the patients' global impression of change. Adverse events (all non-serious) were reported by 37 patients taking EGb 761 and 36 patients receiving placebo.ConclusionsEGb 761 improved NPS and cognitive performance in patients with MCI. The drug was safe and well tolerated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 03/2014; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Few data are available on the prevalence of cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) in rural China. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of CIND in individuals aged 60 years and older in a large rural community, and to analyze the associated risk factors. Methods: A two-phase, door-to-door epidemiological study was used for residents aged 60 years and older in Ji County, a rural county near Tianjin in Northern China. In phase 1 of the study, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating were administered for screening purposes. In phase 2, the subjects who screened positive were further examined by neurologists. A total of 5,744 individuals underwent the home visit interview, where demographic variables and comorbidities were recorded; 5,550 individuals completed the two phases. CIND was diagnosed by the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study on CIND criteria. The odds ratio (OR) for each risk factor was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of CIND among those aged 60 years and older was 23.3%. The prevalence of CIND was lower among those with a higher level of education or social involvement. CIND was more prevalent in females, older individuals, those with a past history of stroke, and those living without a partner. Significant risk factors were found by multivariate analyses: past history of stroke (OR = 1.889; 95% CI: 1.437-2.483); being female (OR = 1.546; 95% CI: 1.305-1.832); and having no partner (divorced, widowed or single; OR = 1.250; 95% CI: 1.042-1.499). In turn, level of education (OR = 0.560; 95% CI: 0.460-0.681) and engagement in social activities (OR = 0.339; 95% CI: 0.258-0.404) were protective factors. Conclusions: This is the first large-scale community-based epidemiological study assessing the prevalence of cognitive loss in the rural Chinese population. The total prevalence of CIND observed was 23.3%, which was higher than in other studies in Western and Asian countries. Living without a partner, female gender and previous stroke increased the risk of CIND, whereas a higher level of education and engagement in social activities reduced the risk of CIND. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Neuroepidemiology 04/2014; 42(4):197-203. · 2.48 Impact Factor