Adipose tissue isomeric trans fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in nine countries: the EURAMIC study.
ABSTRACT Dietary isomeric trans fatty acids-mainly produced by hydrogenation of oils-are suspected of increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. Dietary trans fatty acid intake is reflected in the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue. In an international multicentre study in eight European countries and Israel (EURAMIC), adipose tissue aspiration samples were obtained from 671 men with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), aged 70 years or less, and 717 men without a history of AMI (controls). The proportion of fatty acids, including isomeric trans monoenoic fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms (C18:1), was determined by gas chromatography. Although there were considerable differences between countries in mean (SD) proportion of adipose tissue C18:1 trans fatty acids, there was no overall difference between cases (1.61 [0.92]%) and the controls (1.57 [0.86]%). The risk of AMI did not differ significantly from 1.0 over quartiles of adipose C18:1 trans fatty acids: the multivariate odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI 0.56-1.67) for the highest versus lowest quartile. After exclusion of subjects from Spanish centres because they had far lower proportions of adipose trans fatty acids than subjects from other countries, there was a tendency to increased risk of AMI in the upper quartiles of C18:1 trans; however, the trend was not statistically significant. Our results reflect considerable differences between countries in dietary intake of trans fatty acids but do not suggest a major overall effect of C18:1 trans fatty acids on risk of AMI. We cannot exclude the possibility that trans fatty acids have a significant impact on risk of AMI in populations with high intake.
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ABSTRACT: Objective The goal of this article was to review the causal link between trans fatty acids (TFA) produced from partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and its likely mechanisms. The potential risk of TFA from ruminant dairy and meats, which are currently the major sources of dietary TFA, is also discussed. Methods Evidence was derived from observational studies of large cohorts followed up prospectively; from randomized controlled trials of clinical interventions; and from specific case-control studies that investigated biomarkers in tissues. Searches included PubMed and Medline from 1990 to 2013. Results Despite TFA from PHVO being associated more strongly with CVD risk than even saturated fats, it may prove difficult to totally eliminate PHVO from all foods. This raises the issue of the lower limit of TFA consumption below which CVD risk is not increased. Limits of <1% of total energy have been suggested. The major mechanism underlying the increased CVD risk from TFA is an increase in LDL-C and Lp(a) lipoproteins and a decrease in HDL-C; increased inflammation and adverse effects on vascular function have also been shown. Both PHVO and ruminant TFA comprise a range of isomers, some specific to each source but including a substantial commonality that supports findings of similar adverse effects at equivalent intakes of TFA. However, the amount of TFA in ruminant fat is relatively small; this limits the CVD risk from eating ruminant products, an inference supported by analysis of prospective cohort studies. Conclusions Two key challenges to the health industry arise from this evidence. They must first determine whether a small intake of TFA from PHVO is safe and what constitutes a safe amount. They must also determine whether TFA from ruminant fat in currently consumed amounts represent limited cardiovascular risk that is balanced by the nutritional benefits of dairy products.Clinical Therapeutics 03/2014; 36(3):315–321. DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.01.020 · 2.59 Impact Factor
Journal of the American Heart Association 06/2014; 3(4). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001195 · 2.88 Impact Factor