EEA1, an early endosome-associated protein. EEA1 is a conserved alpha-helical peripheral membrane protein flanked by cysteine "fingers" and contains a calmodulin-binding IQ motif.
ABSTRACT Early endosomes are cellular compartments receiving endocytosed material and sorting them for vesicular transport to late endosomes and lysosomes or for recycling to the plasma membrane. We have cloned a human cDNA encoding an evolutionarily conserved 180-kDa protein on early endosomes named EEA1 (Early Endosome Antigen1). EEA1 is associated with early endosomes since it co-localizes by immunofluorescence with the transferrin receptor and with Rab5 but not with Rab7. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that it is associated with tubulovesicular early endosomes containing internalized bovine serum albumin-gold. EEA1 is a hydrophilic peripheral membrane protein present in cytosol and membrane fractions. It partitions in the aqueous phase after Triton X-114 solubilization and is extracted from membranes by 0.3 M NaCl. It is a predominantly alpha-helical protein sharing 17-20% sequence identity with the myosins and contains a calmodulin-binding IQ motif. It is flanked by metal-binding, cysteine "finger" motifs. The COOH-terminal fingers, Cys-X2-Cys-X12-Cys-X2-Cys and Cys-X2-Cys-X16-Cys-X2-Cys, are present within a region that is strikingly homologous with Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAB1 protein required for endocytosis and with Caenorhabditis elegans ZK632. These fingers also show limited conservation with S. cerevisiae VAC1, Vps11, and Vps18p proteins implicated in vacuolar transport. We propose that EEA1 is required for vesicular transport of proteins through early endosomes and that its finger motifs are required for this activity.
SourceAvailable from: George Sflomos12/2009, Supervisor: Fotsis T.
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ABSTRACT: ESCRT-0 sorts ubiquitinated EGFR within the early endosome, so that the receptor can be incorporated into intralumenal vesicles. An important question is whether ESCRT-0 acts solely upon EGFR that has already entered the vacuolar early endosome (characterised by the presence of EEA1) or engages EGFR within earlier compartments. Here we employ a suite of software to localise ESCRT-0 at subpixel resolution and to perform particle-based colocalisation analysis with other endocytic markers. We demonstrate that although some of the ESCRT-0 subunit Hrs colocalises with the vacuolar early endosome marker EEA1, most localises to a population of peripheral EEA1-negative endosomes that act as intermediates in transporting EGFR from the cell surface to more central early endosomes. The peripheral Hrs-labelled endosomes are distinct from APPL1-containing endosomes, but co-label with the novel endocytic adaptor SNX15. In contrast to ESCRT-0, ESCRT-I is recruited to EGF-containing endosomes at later times as they move to more a central position, whilst ESCRT-III is also recruited more gradually. RNA silencing experiments show that both ESCRT-0 and ESCRT-I are important for the transit of EGF to EEA1 endosomes.Journal of Cell Science 01/2015; 128(4). DOI:10.1242/jcs.161786 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spermiation, the sperm release process, is imperative to male fertility and reproduction. Morphologically, it is characterized by removal of atypical adherens junctions called ectoplasmic specializations, and formation of transient endocytic devices called tubulobulbar complexes requiring cytoskeleton remodeling and recruitment of proteins needed for endocytosis. Earlier, estrogen administration to adult male rats was seen to cause spermiation failure due to disruption of tubulobulbar complexes. This was accompanied by reduction in intratesticular testosterone levels and increase in intratesticular estrogen along with deregulation of genes involved in cytoskeleton remodeling (Arpc1b, Evl and Capg) and endocytosis (Picalm, Eea1 and Stx5a). In the present study, we aim to understand the role of estrogen and androgen in regulating these genes independently using seminiferous tubule culture system treated with estrogen, androgen or agonists and antagonists of estrogen receptors. We find that transcripts of Arpc1b, Evl and Picalm are responsive to estrogen while those of Picalm, Eea1 and Stx5a are responsive to androgen. We also find that the estrogen regulation of Arpc1b and Evl is mediated through estrogen receptor β and that of Picalm occurs through estrogen receptors α and β. Localization of these proteins at or in the vicinity of tubulobulbar complexes reveals that ARPC1B, EVL, PICALM, EEA1 and STX5A seem to be involved in spermiation. Thus, estrogen and androgen regulate specific genes in seminiferous tubules that could play a role in spermiation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 01/2015; 404. DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2014.12.029 · 4.24 Impact Factor