EEA1, an early endosome-associated protein. EEA1 is a conserved alpha-helical peripheral membrane protein flanked by cysteine "fingers" and contains a calmodulin-binding IQ motif.
ABSTRACT Early endosomes are cellular compartments receiving endocytosed material and sorting them for vesicular transport to late endosomes and lysosomes or for recycling to the plasma membrane. We have cloned a human cDNA encoding an evolutionarily conserved 180-kDa protein on early endosomes named EEA1 (Early Endosome Antigen1). EEA1 is associated with early endosomes since it co-localizes by immunofluorescence with the transferrin receptor and with Rab5 but not with Rab7. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that it is associated with tubulovesicular early endosomes containing internalized bovine serum albumin-gold. EEA1 is a hydrophilic peripheral membrane protein present in cytosol and membrane fractions. It partitions in the aqueous phase after Triton X-114 solubilization and is extracted from membranes by 0.3 M NaCl. It is a predominantly alpha-helical protein sharing 17-20% sequence identity with the myosins and contains a calmodulin-binding IQ motif. It is flanked by metal-binding, cysteine "finger" motifs. The COOH-terminal fingers, Cys-X2-Cys-X12-Cys-X2-Cys and Cys-X2-Cys-X16-Cys-X2-Cys, are present within a region that is strikingly homologous with Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAB1 protein required for endocytosis and with Caenorhabditis elegans ZK632. These fingers also show limited conservation with S. cerevisiae VAC1, Vps11, and Vps18p proteins implicated in vacuolar transport. We propose that EEA1 is required for vesicular transport of proteins through early endosomes and that its finger motifs are required for this activity.
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ABSTRACT: Cellular contacts between HIV-1-infected cells and target primary T CD4+ lymphocytes trigger the formation of a structure known as the virological synapse. As a consequence, viral production in HIV-1-infected cells is polarized towards the virological synapse and nascent viral particles are directly transferred to target T CD4+ lymphocytes. In this study, we performed short time cocultures of target primary T CD4+ lymphocytes with effector T cells infected by either HIV-1 NL4-3 or BaL. Using flow cytometry and immuno-confocal analyses, we investigated the transfer of HIV-1 virion antigens. We found that after 3 h of coculture, unstimulated T CD4+ lymphocytes captured complete HIV-1 virions from infected T cells during cell-cell contacts. Virus transfer occurred through a dynamin-dependent pathway and could be inhibited by chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Transferred HIV-1 virions were located in compartments close to the surface of the target cell in a polarized manner. These compartments were positive for clathrin and the early endosomal marker EEA1 but were negative for caveolin-1. Furthermore, the great majority of internalized HIV-1 particles did not colocalize with Lamp1, a well-known marker for the lysosomal-degradative pathway. Similar results were observed when stimulated primary T CD4+ lymphocytes were the target cells. Our results suggest a mechanism of cell to cell HIV-1 transfer through a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent early endocytic pathway where internalized HIV-1 particles would not reach Lamp1 positive compartments, suggesting that during HIV-1 transfer by cell-cell contacts, virions can be taken up by endocytosis but not be degraded in lysosomes.Antiviral research 08/2008; 80(2):185-93. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.06.004 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to better understand the mechanism of delivery of siRNAs by lipid-based vectors, we investigated the subcellular distribution of siRNAs directed against cyclin D1 delivered by the DLS system in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Cells were treated with cyclopentenone or 17beta-estradiol to modulate the level of expression of cyclin D1 mRNA. We qualitatively observed that siRNA localized to specific cytoplasmic compartments in the periphery of the nucleus in granular-like structures that do not correspond to early endosomal vesicles. In cells treated with either cyclopentenone or 17beta-estradiol cellular distribution of siRNAs was not affected but variations in the amount of siRNAs present in cells were found. We suggest these variations might be associated with the effects of cyclopentenone and 17beta-estradiol in cyclin D1 gene expression. Low cytotoxicity and highly cellular uptake of lipoplexes was observed in the presence of serum indicating that the DLS system could be a useful tool for siRNA vectorization in vitro and in vivo.Biochimie 11/2007; 89(10):1245-51. DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2007.05.002 · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) belong to the same transporter family that packages acetylcholine into synaptic vesicles (SVs) and biogenic amines into large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) and/or SVs, respectively. These transporters share similarities in sequence and structure with their N- and C-terminal domains located in the cytoplasm. When expressed in PC12 cells, VMAT2 localizes to LDCV, whereas VAChT is found mainly on synaptic-like microvesicles. Previous studies have shown that the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of VAChT contains signals targeting this transporter to SVs. However, the targeting signals for VMAT have not been completely elucidated. To identify signals targeting VMAT2 to LDCV, the subcellular localization of VMAT2-VAChT chimeras was analyzed in PC12 cells. Chimeras having either the N-terminal region through transmembrane domain 2 of VMAT2 or the C-terminal domain of VMAT2 do not traffic to LDCV efficiently. In contrast, chimeras having both of these regions, or the luminal glycosylated loop in conjunction with transmembrane domains 1 and 2 and the C-terminal domain of VMAT2, traffic to LDCV. Treatment of PC12 cells with 1-deoxymannojirimycin, a specific alpha-mannosidase I inhibitor, causes VMAT2 to localize to synaptic-like microvesicles. The results indicate that both mature N-linked glycosylation and the C-terminus are important for proper trafficking of VMAT2 and that the locations of trafficking signals in VMAT2 and VAChT are surprisingly different.Journal of Neurochemistry 04/2007; 100(5):1387-96. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04326.x · 4.24 Impact Factor