The distribution of neuropeptide Y, substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, Leu5-enkephalin, bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, somatostatin, cholecystokinin and catecholamine synthesizing enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase was studied immunohistochemically in nerve fibres supplying the bovine vagina and uterus. The nerves containing tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactivity were particularly numerous in both organs. Substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and Leu5-enkephalin-containing nerves were less numerous whereas somatostatin and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerves occurred occasionally. Bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide and cholecystokinin immunoreactivities were not present in nervous fibers of the bovine uterus and vagina. Generally, the immunoreactive nerve terminals, fibers, networks or nerve bundles were present below the serous membrane, between smooth muscle cells of muscular layers, around blood vessels, in the submucosal layer and below the luminal epithelium of the uterus and cervix.
"The pelvic nerves appear to subserve sensation from the vagina while the pudendal nerve subserves sensation from the labia and clitoris . Afferent nerves in the vagina appear to contain substance P in both animal [11,12] and human  tissue samples, although SP-containing nerves appear to be sparse in the human vagina . Nerves containing nitric oxide synthase (NOS) have been demonstrated in animal  and human vaginas . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sexual dysfunction affects both men and women, involving organic disorders, psychological problems, or both. Overall, the state of our knowledge is less advanced regarding female sexual physiology in comparison with male sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction has received little clinical and basic research attention and remains a largely untapped field in medicine. The epidemiology of female sexual dysfunction is poorly understood because relatively few studies have been done in community settings. In the United States, female sexual dysfunction has been estimated to affect 40% of women in the general population. Among the elderly, however, it has been reported that up to 87% of women complain of sexual dissatisfaction. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of female sexual arousal disorders correlates significantly with increasing age. These studies have shown that sexual arousal and frequency of coitus in the female decreases with increasing age. The pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction appears more complex than that of males, involving multidimensional hormonal, neurological, vascular, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. Organic female sexual disorders may include a wide variety of vascular, neural, or neurovascular factors that lead to problems with libido, lubrication, and orgasm. However, the precise etiology and mechanistic pathways of age-related female sexual arousal disorders are yet to be determined. In the past two decades, some advances have been made in exploring the basic hemodynamics and neuroregulation of female sexual function and dysfunction in both animal models and in human studies. In this review, we summarize neural regulation of sexual function and neurological causes of sexual dysfunction in women.
Korean journal of urology 07/2010; 51(7):443-9. DOI:10.4111/kju.2010.51.7.443
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate a possible regional variation of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide innervation in the uterus of the cyclic rat, the distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing nerve fibres from the cervix to the oviduct end of the uterine horns was studied using immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive nerve fibres were most concentrated in the cervix, where they formed a dense plexus in association with the musculature and surrounding blood vessels. In the uterus, a clear regional distribution of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide innervation was observed. Numerous vascular and non-vascular immunoreactive nerve fibres were present in the lower part of the uterine horns, whereas they were sparse in the median region and absent at the oviduct end. Moreover, non-vascular peptide innervation was mostly concentrated in the circular layer of the myometrium and also occurred in the endometrium. Only a very few immunoreactive nerve fibres were present in the longitudinal muscle layer. No change in the peptide innervation pattern was observed during the different stages of the sexual cycle. The marked regional distribution of the peptide innervation in the rat uterus suggests that the regulatory effects of the peptide occur mainly in the lower part of the organ and principally affect the circular muscle layer in the myometrium.
The Histochemical Journal 08/1998; 30(7):525-9. DOI:10.1023/A:1003299621127
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. To clarify the autonomic innervation regulating longitudinal muscle (LM) and circular muscle (CM) motility in the bovine uterus, functional (nerve stimulation, adrenergic drug responsiveness) and biochemical studies (catecholamine content, radioligand binding) were conducted on parous luteal-phase myometrium. 2. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 60 V, 0.5-msec duration) caused tetrodotoxin (1 microM)-sensitive contractions in a frequency-dependent manner (0.5-20 Hz) in both LM and CM layers. 3. The EFS-induced LM contractions were potentiated by propranolol and conspicuously decreased by phentolamine, yohimbine, idazoxan or guanethidine, but were unaffected by prazosin or atropine. 4. On the other hand, CM contractions were only slightly decreased by phentolamine, idazoxan, yohimbine and guanethidine, but were insensitive to propranolol, prazosin or atropine. 5. The noradrenaline content in LM was about five times higher than that in CM. 6. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, clonidine, xylazine, UK14,304 and phenylephrine caused concentration-dependent contractions of both smooth muscle layers. 7. Clonidine, UK14,304 and xylazine were more potent contractile agents than noradrenaline and phenylephrine. 8. The contractile response to noradrenaline was competitively antagonized by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. 9. Binding studies using [3H]-prazosin and [3H]-rauwolscine revealed that the bovine myometrium contained both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors, but the alpha2-type receptor was dominant in both LM (94% of alpha-adrenoceptors) and CM (88%) layers. 10. The distribution of alpha-adrenoceptors was muscle layer-specific; that is, the concentration of alpha1-receptors in LM was the same as in CM, but the concentration of alpha2-receptors in LM was 2.6 times higher than that in CM. 11. The results of the present study indicate that there are layer-specific variations in the functional innervation of the parous bovine myometrium (exclusive adrenergic innervation in LM and adrenergic [minor] plus nonadrenergic, noncholinergic innervation [major] in CM), and that alpha2-adrenoceptors, which were responsive to the excitatory response of endogenous and exogenous noradrenaline, were dominant in both muscle layers of the bovine myometrium.
General Pharmacology 02/1999; 32(1):91-100. DOI:10.1016/S0306-3623(98)00089-5
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