Peptidergic innervation of the bovine vagina and uterus.
ABSTRACT The distribution of neuropeptide Y, substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, Leu5-enkephalin, bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, somatostatin, cholecystokinin and catecholamine synthesizing enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase was studied immunohistochemically in nerve fibres supplying the bovine vagina and uterus. The nerves containing tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactivity were particularly numerous in both organs. Substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and Leu5-enkephalin-containing nerves were less numerous whereas somatostatin and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerves occurred occasionally. Bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide and cholecystokinin immunoreactivities were not present in nervous fibers of the bovine uterus and vagina. Generally, the immunoreactive nerve terminals, fibers, networks or nerve bundles were present below the serous membrane, between smooth muscle cells of muscular layers, around blood vessels, in the submucosal layer and below the luminal epithelium of the uterus and cervix.
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ABSTRACT: Sexual dysfunction affects both men and women, involving organic disorders, psychological problems, or both. Overall, the state of our knowledge is less advanced regarding female sexual physiology in comparison with male sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction has received little clinical and basic research attention and remains a largely untapped field in medicine. The epidemiology of female sexual dysfunction is poorly understood because relatively few studies have been done in community settings. In the United States, female sexual dysfunction has been estimated to affect 40% of women in the general population. Among the elderly, however, it has been reported that up to 87% of women complain of sexual dissatisfaction. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of female sexual arousal disorders correlates significantly with increasing age. These studies have shown that sexual arousal and frequency of coitus in the female decreases with increasing age. The pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction appears more complex than that of males, involving multidimensional hormonal, neurological, vascular, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. Organic female sexual disorders may include a wide variety of vascular, neural, or neurovascular factors that lead to problems with libido, lubrication, and orgasm. However, the precise etiology and mechanistic pathways of age-related female sexual arousal disorders are yet to be determined. In the past two decades, some advances have been made in exploring the basic hemodynamics and neuroregulation of female sexual function and dysfunction in both animal models and in human studies. In this review, we summarize neural regulation of sexual function and neurological causes of sexual dysfunction in women.Korean journal of urology 07/2010; 51(7):443-9.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The myoma pseudocapsule (MP) is a fibro-vascular network rich of neurotransmitters, as a neurovascular bundle, surrounding fibroid and separating myoma from myometrium. We investigated the distribution of the opioid neuropeptides, as enkephalin (ENK) and oxytocin (OXT), in the nerve fibers within MP and their possible influence in human reproduction in 57 women. An histological and immunofluorescent staining of OXT and ENK was performed on nerve fibers of MP samples from the fundus, corpus and isthmian-cervical regions, with a successive morphometric quantification of OXT and ENK. None of the nerve fibers in the uterine fundus and corpus MPs contained ENK and the nerve fibers in the isthmian-cervical region demonstrated an ENK value of up to 94 ± 0.7 CU. A comparatively lower number of OXT-positive nerve fibers were found in the fundal MP (6.3 ± 0.8 CU). OXT-positive nerve fibers with OXT were marginally increased in corporal MP (15.0 ± 1.4 CU) and were substantially higher in the isthmian-cervical region MP (72.1 ± 5.1 CU) (p < 0.01). The distribution of OXY neurofibers showed a slight into the uterine corpus, while are highly present into the cervico-isthmic area, with influence on reproductive system and sexual disorders manifesting after surgical procedures on the cervix.Gynecological Endocrinology 08/2013; · 1.30 Impact Factor