Peptidergic innervation of the bovine vagina and uterus
ABSTRACT The distribution of neuropeptide Y, substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, Leu5-enkephalin, bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, somatostatin, cholecystokinin and catecholamine synthesizing enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase was studied immunohistochemically in nerve fibres supplying the bovine vagina and uterus. The nerves containing tyrosine hydroxylase or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactivity were particularly numerous in both organs. Substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and Leu5-enkephalin-containing nerves were less numerous whereas somatostatin and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerves occurred occasionally. Bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide and cholecystokinin immunoreactivities were not present in nervous fibers of the bovine uterus and vagina. Generally, the immunoreactive nerve terminals, fibers, networks or nerve bundles were present below the serous membrane, between smooth muscle cells of muscular layers, around blood vessels, in the submucosal layer and below the luminal epithelium of the uterus and cervix.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate a possible regional variation of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide innervation in the uterus of the cyclic rat, the distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing nerve fibres from the cervix to the oviduct end of the uterine horns was studied using immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive nerve fibres were most concentrated in the cervix, where they formed a dense plexus in association with the musculature and surrounding blood vessels. In the uterus, a clear regional distribution of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide innervation was observed. Numerous vascular and non-vascular immunoreactive nerve fibres were present in the lower part of the uterine horns, whereas they were sparse in the median region and absent at the oviduct end. Moreover, non-vascular peptide innervation was mostly concentrated in the circular layer of the myometrium and also occurred in the endometrium. Only a very few immunoreactive nerve fibres were present in the longitudinal muscle layer. No change in the peptide innervation pattern was observed during the different stages of the sexual cycle. The marked regional distribution of the peptide innervation in the rat uterus suggests that the regulatory effects of the peptide occur mainly in the lower part of the organ and principally affect the circular muscle layer in the myometrium.The Histochemical Journal 08/1998; 30(7):525-9. DOI:10.1023/A:1003299621127
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ABSTRACT: 1. To clarify the autonomic innervation regulating longitudinal muscle (LM) and circular muscle (CM) motility in the bovine uterus, functional (nerve stimulation, adrenergic drug responsiveness) and biochemical studies (catecholamine content, radioligand binding) were conducted on parous luteal-phase myometrium. 2. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 60 V, 0.5-msec duration) caused tetrodotoxin (1 microM)-sensitive contractions in a frequency-dependent manner (0.5-20 Hz) in both LM and CM layers. 3. The EFS-induced LM contractions were potentiated by propranolol and conspicuously decreased by phentolamine, yohimbine, idazoxan or guanethidine, but were unaffected by prazosin or atropine. 4. On the other hand, CM contractions were only slightly decreased by phentolamine, idazoxan, yohimbine and guanethidine, but were insensitive to propranolol, prazosin or atropine. 5. The noradrenaline content in LM was about five times higher than that in CM. 6. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, clonidine, xylazine, UK14,304 and phenylephrine caused concentration-dependent contractions of both smooth muscle layers. 7. Clonidine, UK14,304 and xylazine were more potent contractile agents than noradrenaline and phenylephrine. 8. The contractile response to noradrenaline was competitively antagonized by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. 9. Binding studies using [3H]-prazosin and [3H]-rauwolscine revealed that the bovine myometrium contained both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors, but the alpha2-type receptor was dominant in both LM (94% of alpha-adrenoceptors) and CM (88%) layers. 10. The distribution of alpha-adrenoceptors was muscle layer-specific; that is, the concentration of alpha1-receptors in LM was the same as in CM, but the concentration of alpha2-receptors in LM was 2.6 times higher than that in CM. 11. The results of the present study indicate that there are layer-specific variations in the functional innervation of the parous bovine myometrium (exclusive adrenergic innervation in LM and adrenergic [minor] plus nonadrenergic, noncholinergic innervation [major] in CM), and that alpha2-adrenoceptors, which were responsive to the excitatory response of endogenous and exogenous noradrenaline, were dominant in both muscle layers of the bovine myometrium.General Pharmacology 02/1999; 32(1):91-100. DOI:10.1016/S0306-3623(98)00089-5
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ABSTRACT: In vitro experiments on oviducts of cyclic cows were undertaken to study: (1) the content of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) in infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus, (2) the concentration of oxytocin receptors (OTR) in oviductal tissues and (3) the motility of ampulla and isthmus. Changes of DA content were observed in the infundibulum and the ampulla with maximal values occurring on Days 6-10 of the estrous cycle. The mean NA content was greatest in infundibulum<ampulla<isthmus. NA concentrations were the highest in the isthmus on Days 1-5 and 16-21, whereas in infundibulum NA levels were low during the whole estrous cycle. Mean A content was the highest (P<0.001) in the isthmus and in the studied regions of the oviduct A content decreased from Days 1-5 to Days 16-21 (P<0.01). Oxytocin receptors densities were measured in oviducts collected from cows on Days 16-21 (277.1+/-151.4 fmol/mg protein; K(d) 20.5+/-10.9 nM). Oxytocin (10(-7) M) increased the area under the contractile curve (AUC) of the ampulla and the isthmus on Days 16-21 and of the isthmus on Days 1-5 (P<0.01). Acetylcholine (Ach) (10(-7) M) stimulated the ampulla and the isthmus contractions on Days 1-5 (P<0.05) and ampulla contractions on Days 6-10 and 16-21 (P<0.01). NA (10(-5) M) relaxed the ampulla and the isthmus during most of the studied days but was most effective on Days 1-5 and 16-21 (P<0.01). In conclusion: (a) catecholamine content in the bovine oviduct varies by region and phase of the estrous cycle, (b) the presence of OTR and the stimulatory effect of oxytocin on oviduct motility are evident in the follicular-phase cows, (c) Ach and NA modify contractile activity in the oviduct of cows during follicular and early-luteal phases and (d) the studied oviductal parameters did not differ by ipsilateral and contralateral relationships to the active ovary in cow.Theriogenology 09/2003; 60(5):953-64. DOI:10.1016/S0093-691X(03)00086-4 · 1.85 Impact Factor