Comments that S. A. Rasmussen (see record
1994-38510-001) oversimplified the overviews of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders by E. Hollander (e.g., see record
1993-45561-001). Hollander states that the overviews attempted to clarify the way in which the putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders are both similar and dissimilar to one another and to delineate several axes in order to discuss possible relationships between different obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders and symptoms. The research and clinical heuristic value of the obsessive-compulsive construct is noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
"Although BDD is indeed characterised by repetitive and time-consuming behaviours, the behaviours differ from those seen in OCD. Whereas the compulsions of OCD are the result of ego-dystonic cognitions, the behavioural symptoms of BDD are considered by some to be the outward manifestation of an egosyntonic preoccupation with the perceived defects (Crino, 2000; Hollander & Rosen, 2000). Furthermore, although the repetitive behaviours of BDD may be intended to reduce anxiety, unlike checking and other compulsive behaviours in OCD they are often unsuccessful in this regard and frequently have the opposite effect: an increase in anxiety and distress (Veale & Riley, 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
This paper reviews the literature as it relates to perceptual processes in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD).
A narrative-style review of the literature was undertaken to explore the relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder, the empirical evidence for aberrant own-body perception in BDD, and the possible role of the parietal cortex in the disorder.
The extant literature appears to support the postulation that BDD is underpinned by a dysfunction in somatoperception-the process by which individuals formulate a sense of what they look like.
Investigation of somatoperceptive processes in BDD and related brain structures would provide important insight about the development and maintenance of this complex and often neglected psychiatric condition, and, in turn, help improve its treatment.
"Both impulsivity and compulsivity appear characterized by difficulties in self-control (Stein and Hollander 1995) and may relate in complex fashions to theoretically similar but distinct constructs (e.g., sensation-seeking, risk-taking, decision-making). Regarding clinical implications, persistent substance use despite knowledge of harm, which relates to hypothesis is a topic of research and clinical importance. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathological gambling (PG) has recently been considered as a "behavioral" or nonsubstance addiction. A comparison of the characteristics of PG and substance use disorders (SUDs) has clinical ramifications and could help advance future research on these conditions. Specific relationships with impulsivity and compulsivity may be central to understanding PG and SUDs.
This review was conducted to compare and contrast research findings in PG and SUDs pertaining to neurocognitive tasks, brain function, and neurochemistry, with a focus on impulsivity and compulsivity.
Multiple similarities were found between PG and SUDs, including poor performance on neurocognitive tasks, specifically with respect to impulsive choice and response tendencies and compulsive features (e.g., response perseveration and action with diminished relationship to goals or reward). Findings suggest dysfunction involving similar brain regions, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and striatum and similar neurotransmitter systems, including dopaminergic and serotonergic. Unique features exist which may in part reflect influences of acute or chronic exposures to specific substances.
Both similarities and differences exist between PG and SUDs. Understanding these similarities more precisely may facilitate treatment development across addictions, whereas understanding differences may provide insight into treatment development for specific disorders. Individual differences in features of impulsivity and compulsivity may represent important endophenotypic targets for prevention and treatment strategies.
"These findings are partly concordant with previous investigations reporting the cooccurrence of body dysmorphic disorder with obsessive–compulsive disorder (Cohen and Hollander, 1997; Phillips and McElroy, 2000) and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (Bellino et al., 2006). In fact, BDD is conceptualized as an OC-spectrum disorder (Cohen and Hollander, 1997). Satisfaction with and positive evaluations of appearance are associated with histrionic traits, implying that patients who are satisfied with and increasingly preoccupied with their appearance also possess excessive need for approval and display a pattern of excessive emotionality. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to examine symptoms of body dysmorphic concerns, mental health indices and certain specific personality disorder patterns in seekers of cosmetic rhinoplasty. A sample of 100 consecutive female patients scheduled for esthetic rhinoplasty was recruited for the study. Findings reveal body dysmorphic concerns in 22% of the sample, though individual traits are observed in 5-85% of the sample. Appearance evaluation, but not preoccupation with appearance, correlates with anxiety and depression. Furthermore, dissatisfaction with appearance and body parts decrease, while preoccupation with appearance increases after the surgical intervention. Positive appearance evaluations are associated with histrionic and narcissistic traits, while dissatisfaction with body parts correlates positively with obsessive-compulsive traits. Overall, results imply that body dysmorphic concerns are better conceived of either as an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder or as morbid manifestations of inflexible perfectionistic tendencies seen in obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.
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