Psychophysiologic responses of mechanically ventilated patients to music: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT Although mechanically ventilated patients experience numerous stressors, they have not been included in music therapy stress reduction and relaxation studies.
To examine selected psychophysiologic responses of mechanically ventilated patients to music.
A two-group experimental design with pretest, posttest, and repeated measures was used. Twenty mechanically ventilated patients were randomized to a music-listening group or a nonmusic (headphones only) group. Physiologic dependent measures--heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and airway pressure--were collected at timed intervals. Psychologic data were collected before and after intervention using the Profile of Mood States.
Using repeated measures analysis of variance, results for heart rate and respiratory rate over time and over time between groups were significant. Between-group differences were significant for respiratory rate. Significant differences were found via t test for the music group's Profile of Mood States scores. No adverse cardiovascular responses were noted for either group.
Data indicated that music listening decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, and Profile of Mood States scores, indicating relaxation and mood improvement.
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ABSTRACT: A pilot study designed as future randomised controlled trial was carried out to determine the effects of music on physiological responses and sedation scores in sedated, mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanically ventilated ICU patients, even when receiving intravenous sedatives, may experience stress and anxiety. One possible intervention to reduce stress and anxiety is listening to music. A randomised controlled trial design with repeated measures was used. Data were collected over a six-month period in 2006. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Subjects in the experimental group listened to music three times for 30 minutes over two days; subjects in the control group undertook three 30 minute rest periods. Physiological effects of music on systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and heart and respiratory rate were assessed. Sedation scores were also measured. Physiological parameters did not show a significant difference between the groups. Patients in the experimental group showed significantly higher Ramsay (sedation) scores than patients in the control group after the first session. The higher scores indicate that patients were less responsive to external stimuli. Our results suggest that listening to music leads to higher sedation scores in sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patients. No significant decreases in physiological parameters were observed. Listening to music showed no negative changes in the condition of these patients. Future research should focus on the use of other measures, such as stress hormones, to assess stress in sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patients. For the sedated, mechanically ventilated ICU patient, the benefit of music may lie in the associated (deeper) level of sedation that is achieved, which in turn may make the patient less susceptible to stress and anxiety.Journal of Clinical Nursing 04/2010; 19(7-8):1030-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02968.x · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a discussion of the development of a middle-range nursing theory of the effects of music on physical activity and improved health outcomes. Due to the high rate of physical inactivity and the associated negative health outcomes worldwide, nurses need new evidence-based theories and interventions to increase physical activity. The theory of music, mood and movement (MMM) was developed from physical activity guidelines and music theory using the principles of statement and theory synthesis. The concepts of music, physical activity and health outcomes were searched using the CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases covering the years 1975-2008. The theory of MMM was synthesized by combining the psychological and physiological responses of music to increase physical activity and improve health outcomes. It proposes that music alters mood, is a cue for movement, and makes physical activity more enjoyable leading to improved health outcomes of weight, blood pressure, blood sugar and cardiovascular risk factor management, and improved quality of life. As it was developed from the physical activity guidelines, the middle-range theory is prescriptive, produces testable hypotheses, and can guide nursing research and practice. The middle-range theory needs to be tested to determine its usefulness for nurses to develop physical activity programmes to improve health outcomes across various cultures.Journal of Advanced Nursing 10/2009; 65(10):2249-57. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05108.x · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Music has been found to be an effective nonpharmacologic adjunct for managing anxiety and promoting relaxation in limited trials of critically ill patients. However, its effects have not been compared in intubated patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation with non-intubated patients spontaneously breathing. A cross-over randomized experimental design. Thirty patients were studied (intubated group n = 15, non-intubated group n = 15). Patients were randomized to receive either 20 minutes of uninterrupted rest or then 20 minutes of music therapy or the music therapy first and then the uninterrupted rest period. Patients selected a relaxing music of their choice from a selection including different types of music. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SAP), respiratory rate (RR) and bispectral index (BIS score) were recorded each 5-min intervals throughout both periods (rest and music). Agitation/sedation state and pain were evaluated by the Richmond-Agitation-Sedation-Scale (RASS) and the Numerical-Rating-Scale (NRS) respectively, before and after each studied periods. Music have not been performed in five patients (5/35 = 14%). Music significantly decreased HR (88+/-15 vs 82+/-15, P<0.05), SAP (137+/-17 vs 128+/-14, P<0.05), RR (25+/-3 vs 22+/-4, P<0.05), BIS (94+/-5 vs 81+/-10, P<0.01), RASS (+0.1+/-0.7 vs -0.7+/-0.9, P<0.05) and NRS (4.4+/-1.7 vs 1.9+/-1.3, P<0.01) in both intubated and non-intubated groups whereas no significant change was observed during the rest period. The variations level studied parameters induced by music were comparable for the two groups. A single music therapy session was found to be effective for decreasing anxiety and promoting relaxation, as indicated by decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, BIS and respiratory rate over the intervention period in intubated patients during weaning phase.Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation 02/2007; 26(1):30-8. DOI:10.1016/j.annfar.2006.09.002 · 0.84 Impact Factor