Regulation of adult neurogenesis by excitatory input and NMDA receptor activation in the dentate gyrus.
ABSTRACT The effects of afferent input and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation on neurogenesis were examined in an intact system, the rat dentate gyrus, where neurons are naturally born in the adult. In the adult dentate gyrus, activation of NMDA receptors rapidly decreased the number of cells synthesizing DNA, whereas blockade of NMDA receptors rapidly increased the number of cells in the S phase identified with 3H-thymidine. Acute treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists increased the birth of neurons and increased the overall density of neurons in the granule cell layer. Lesion of the entorhinal cortex, the main excitatory afferent population to the granule neurons, also increased the birth of cells in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the rat is altered by afferent input, via NMDA receptors, and may be regulated naturally by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Heather Cameron, Jan 10, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Abuse of cough mixture is increasingly prevalent worldwide. Clinical studies showed that chronic consumption of cough mixture at high dosages may lead to psychiatric symptoms, especially affective disturbances, with the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The present study aims at exploring the effect of repeated, high-dose dextromethorphan (DXM, a common active component of cough mixture) treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is associated with pathophysiology of mood disturbances. After treatment with a high-dose of DXM (40 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks, Sprague-Dawley rats showed increased depression-like behavior when compared to the control animals. Neurogenesis in the hippocampus was suppressed by DXM treatment, which was indicated by decreases in number of proliferative cells and doublecortin (an immature neuron marker)-positive new neurons. Furthermore, the dendritic complexity of the immature neurons was suppressed by DXM treatment. These findings suggest that DXM induces depression- and anxiety-like behavior and suppresses neurogenesis in rats. The current experimental paradigm may serve as an animal model for study on affective effect of cough mixture abuse, rehabilitation treatment options for abusers and the related neurological mechanisms.Experimental Brain Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00221-015-4290-0 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: New neurons are continually generated in the subependymal layer of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus during adulthood. In the subventricular zone, neuroblasts migrate a long distance to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into granule or periglomerular interneurons. In the hippocampus, neuroblasts migrate a short distance from the subgranular zone to the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus to become granule neurons. In addition to the short-distance inputs, bulbar interneurons receive long-distance centrifugal afferents from olfactory-recipient structures. Similarly, dentate granule cells receive differential inputs from the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices through the perforant pathway. Little is known concerning these new inputs on the adult-born cells. In this work, we have characterized afferent inputs to 21-day old newly-born neurons. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with bromodeoxyuridine. Two weeks later, rhodamine-labeled dextran-amine was injected into the anterior olfactory nucleus, olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex and lateral and medial entorhinal cortices. One week later, animals were perfused and immunofluorescences were carried out. The data show that projection neurons from the mentioned structures, establish putative synaptic contacts onto 21-day-old neurons in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus, in some cases even before they start to express specific subpopulation proteins. Long-distance afferents reach middle and outer one-third portions of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and granule and, interestingly, periglomerular layers of the olfactory bulb. In the olfactory bulb, these fibers appear to establish presumptive axo-somatic contacts onto newly-born granule and periglomerular cells.Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 02/2015; 9:4. DOI:10.3389/fnana.2015.00004 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Zebrafish maintain a greater capacity than mammals for central nervous system repair after injury. Understanding differences in regenerative responses between different vertebrate species may shed light on mechanisms to improve repair in humans. Quinolinic acid is an excitotoxin that has been used to induce brain injury in rodents for modeling Huntington's disease and stroke. When injected into the adult rodent striatum, this toxin stimulates subventricular zone neurogenesis and neuroblast migration to injury. However, most new neurons fail to survive and lesion repair is minimal. We used quinolinic acid to lesion the adult zebrafish telencephalon to study reparative processes. We also used conditional transgenic lineage mapping of adult radial glial stem cells to explore survival and integration of neurons generated after injury. Telencephalic lesioning with quinolinic acid, and to a lesser extent vehicle injection, produced cell death, microglial infiltration, increased cell proliferation, and enhanced neurogenesis in the injured hemisphere. Lesion repair was more complete with quinolinic acid injection than after vehicle injection. Fate mapping of her4-expressing radial glia showed injury-induced expansion of radial glial stem cells that gave rise to neurons which migrated to injury, survived at least 8 weeks and formed long-distance projections that crossed the anterior commissure and synapsed in the contralateral hemisphere. These findings suggest that quinolinic acid lesioning of the zebrafish brain stimulates adult neural stem cells to produce robust regeneration with long-distance integration of new neurons. This model should prove useful for elucidating reparative mechanisms that can be applied to restorative therapies for mammalian brain injury. GLIA 2014Glia 12/2014; 62(12). DOI:10.1002/glia.22726 · 5.47 Impact Factor