Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm

Department of Neurological Surgery, Presbyterian-University Hospital, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania.
Journal of Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.23). 03/1995; 82(2):201-10. DOI: 10.3171/jns.1995.82.2.0201
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors report the results of 782 microvascular decompression procedures for hemifacial spasm in 703 patients (705 sides), with follow-up study from 1 to 20 years (mean 8 years). Of 648 patients who had not undergone prior intracranial procedures for hemifacial spasm, 65% were women; their mean age was 52 years, and the mean preoperative duration of symptoms was 7 years. The onset of symptoms was typical in 92% and atypical in 8%. An additional 57 patients who had undergone prior microvascular decompression elsewhere were analyzed as a separate group. Patients were followed prospectively with annual questionnaires. Kaplan-Meier methods showed that among patients without prior microvascular decompression elsewhere, 84% had excellent results and 7% had partial success 10 years postoperatively. Subgroup analyses (Cox proportional hazards model) showed that men had better results than women, and patients with typical onset of symptoms had better results than those with atypical onset. Nearly all failures occurred within 24 months of operation; 9% of patients underwent reoperation for recurrent symptoms. Second microvascular decompression procedures were less successful, whether the first procedure was performed at Presbyterian-University Hospital or elsewhere, unless the procedure was performed within 30 days after the first microvascular decompression. Patient age, side and preoperative duration of symptoms, history of Bell's palsy, preoperative presence of facial weakness or synkinesis, and implant material used had no influence on postoperative results. Complications after the first microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm included ipsilateral deaf ear in 2.6% and ipsilateral permanent, severe facial weakness in 0.9% of patients. Complications were more frequent in reoperated patients. In all, one operative death (0.1%) and two brainstem infarctions (0.3%) occurred. Microvascular decompression is a safe and definitive treatment for hemifacial spasm with proven long-term efficacy.

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    ABSTRACT: Hemifacial spasm is a socially disabling condition that manifests as intermittent involuntary twitching of the eyelid and progresses to muscle contractions of the entire hemiface. Patients receiving microvascular decompression of the facial nerve demonstrate an abnormal lateral spread response (LSR) in peripheral branches during facial electromyography. The authors retrospectively evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative clinical characteristics and the efficacy of intraoperative monitoring in predicting short- and long-term relief after microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm. Microvascular decompression was performed in 293 patients with hemifacial spasm, and LSR was recorded during intraoperative facial electromyography monitoring. In 259 (87.7%) of the 293 patients, the LSR was attainable. Patient outcome was evaluated on the basis of whether the LSR disappeared or persisted after decompression. The mean follow-up period was 54.5 months (range, 9-102 months). A total of 88.0% of patients experienced immediate postoperative relief of spasm; 90.8% had relief at discharge, and 92.3% had relief at follow-up. Preoperative facial weakness and platysmal spasm correlated with persistent postoperative spasm, with similar trends at follow-up. In 207 patients, the LSR disappeared intraoperatively after decompression (group I), and in the remaining 52 patients, the LSR persisted intraoperatively despite decompression (group II). There was a significant difference in spasm relief between both groups within 24 hours of surgery (94.7% vs. 67.3%) (P < 0.0001) and at discharge (94.2% vs. 76.9%) (P = 0.001), but not at follow-up (93.3% vs. 94.4%) (P = 1.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated independent predictability of residual LSR for present spasm within 24 hours of surgery and at discharge but not at follow-up. Facial electromyography monitoring of the LSR during microvascular decompression is an effective tool in ensuring a complete decompression with long-lasting effects. Although LSR results predict short-term outcomes, long-term outcomes are not as reliant on LSR activity.
    Journal of clinical neurophysiology: official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society 02/2011; 28(1):56-66. DOI:10.1097/WNP.0b013e3182051300 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We applied a 3D fast spin-echo (3D-FSE) MR imaging technique to the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of patients with hemifacial spasm. The study group comprised 20 patients. All images were acquired on a 1.5-T MR system with a 3D-FSE sequence. In all 20 patients, the courses of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves were depicted separately, and the arteries presumed to be responsible for the hemifacial spasm were seen to be in contact with the facial nerves at the root exit zone (REZ). Eight patients underwent neurovascular decompression. In all patients, the presumed responsible blood vessels depicted by 3D-FSE MR imaging corresponded to intraoperative findings. In addition, postoperative 3D-FSE images confirmed the separation of the facial nerve from a contiguous vessel at the REZ. The 3D-FSE technique makes it possible to obtain extremely high-quality images of microstructures in the cerebellopontine cistern, and it has several advantages over conventional angiography: it is noninvasive and able to depict the cranial nerves and surrounding vessels in the same image without contrast material, and it may be useful for postoperative evaluation of the decompression procedure. This imaging technique is expected to prove useful for the clinical evaluation of hemifacial spasm.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 19(10):1823-9. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Berlin, Humboldt-Univ., Diss., 2004 (Nicht für den Austausch).