Serum intact parathyroid hormone and ionised calcium concentration in children with renal insufficiency.
ABSTRACT We report our experience of the use of an immunoradiometric assay for intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH) and the measurement of plasma ionised calcium concentration (PCa2+) in 73 children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI); plasma creatinine concentration (PCr) 52-856 mumol/l. There was a poor correlation between i-PTH and PCr (r = 0.10, n = 552) compared with that for C-terminal PTH and PCr (r = 0.60, n = 248), suggesting that the i-PTH assay is independent of renal function in this group of treated children. A clear response of i-PTH to a low total plasma Ca (tPCa) and PCa2+ was observed. There was a significant positive correlation between both tPCa and PCa2+ (r = 0.50, n = 389) and the fraction of Ca2+ (the fraction of tCa which was ionised) and PCa2+ (r = 0.50, n = 389). The finding of a low or normal PCa2+ with a low calculated fraction of Ca2+ was frequently observed, i.e. the measured tPCa was unexpectedly high, suggesting complexing of Ca2+ by accumulated anions in CRI. There was a poor relationship between the plasma albumin concentration and both bound plus complexed Ca (tPCa minus PCa2+) and the fraction of Ca2+ (r = 0.15 and -0.17, respectively). The positive predictive value for a raised i-PTH of a tubular reabsorption of phosphate of less than 80% was 0.87, and of an alkaline phosphatase greater than 800 U/l was 0.37.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: Studies in the past showed elevated immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) serum values in early renal failure, but the assays used in these studies could not discriminate between bioinactive fragments of the PTH peptide and biologically active hormone. The availability of a sensitive PTH assay, which quantitates intact hormone, now allows the analysis of biologically active PTH in renal failure. To characterise more precisely the point of onset of hyperparathyroidism in the course of chronic renal failure and its relation to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], we measured plasma intact PTH and vitamin D metabolite serum values in 63 non-nephrotic uraemic patients (male n = 35, female n = 28, age 31-78 years) with incipient (GFR 60-90 ml/min per 1.73 m3, n = 19) mild (GFR 40-60, n = 22) and moderate (GFR 20-40, n = 22) renal failure, and in 22 age-matched healthy control subjects. Intact PTH concentrations were negatively correlated with GFR (r = -0.57, P less than 0.001). Median plasma intact PTH values (normal range 1.2-6 pmol/l) were 5.6 (range 2.2-13.0) in incipient, 8.1 (2.9-24.0) in mild, and 13.0 (5.4-59.0) in moderate renal failure. Intact PTH values in incipient renal failure were significantly greater than in 22 age-matched control subjects (P less than 0.01). The decline of GFR was paralleled by a progressive decrease in 1,25(OH)2D3 serum values (r = 0.44, P = 0.001). Median values of the hormone (normal range 35-90 pg/ml) were 32 (range 20-66) in incipient (P less than 0.01 vs. age-matched control subjects), 34 (22-74) in mild, and 26 (17-39) in moderate renal failure. In all three groups, mean serum phosphate and total calcium concentrations (corrected for serum protein) were within the normal range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/1991; 6(3):162-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One hundred fourteen nondialyzed azotemic adult patients (creatinine connentration 1.2 to 17.6 mg/dl), 78 stable renal transplant recipients (creatinine less than 1.9 mg/dl), 50 patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis, 36 patients with surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism, and 62 normal volunteers were studied with simultaneous serum ionized calcium, total calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, and creatinine measurements. Ionized calcium could not be reliably predicted from total calcium. Although in all patient groups values for serum ionized calcium correlated significantly with those for total calcium, the scatter around the regression line was such that a direct interpretation was not precise. With respect to reference values, significant differnces were found between ionized and total calcium in 26% of all studied patients. When compared with total serum calcium, ionized calcium appeared to be a more sensitive index of calcium metabolism. All correlations with ionized calcium had a higher r value compared with those with total serum calcium. Two findings were particularly rewarding. In patients with chronic renal failure, serum PTH showed a negative correlation with serum ionized calcium, indicating that the latter may have been largely responsible for the secondary increase in PTH; in patients after a successful transplant, serum PTH showed a positive correlation with serum ionized calcium, indicating that in the presence of normal kidney function the previously hypertrophied parathyroid glands may be largely responsible for the daily study of a large number of specimens, determinations of serum ionized calcium should be encouraged in all patients suspected of having abnormalities of renal calcium metabolism.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 11/1980; 55(10):606-13. · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the hypothesis that altered binding of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) to parathyroid receptors might be involved in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure. The binding of [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3 to hyperplastic parathyroid glands obtained from seven patients with chronic renal failure was measured. These values were compared with those for binding to hyperplastic parathyroid tissue obtained from six patients who had received renal transplants and for binding to parathyroid adenomas removed from five patients who had primary hyperparathyroidism. We found that Nmax (an estimate of the concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptors) was reduced (42 +/- 15 fmol per milligram of protein) in patients with chronic renal failure as compared with patients with transplanted kidneys (78 +/- 24 fmol per milligram of protein) and patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (114 +/- 30). Nmax correlated inversely with the severity of renal dysfunction, the serum level of phosphorus, and the logarithm of the serum level of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone. These observations suggest that 1,25-(OH)2D3 binding by parathyroid tissue is reduced in chronic renal failure. This may contribute to the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism by reducing the inhibition by 1,25-(OH)2D of parathyroid hormone secretion. The low serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D in chronic renal failure may accentuate this effect.New England Journal of Medicine 07/1987; 316(25):1573-7. · 51.66 Impact Factor