Race and sex differences in rates of invasive cardiac procedures in US hospitals. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey.
ABSTRACT Lower rates of invasive cardiac procedures have been reported for blacks and women than for white men. However, few studies have adjusted for differences in the type of hospital of admission, insurance status, and disease severity. SETTING, DESIGN, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey were used to investigate race and sex differences in rates of cardiac catheterization, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass surgery among 10,348 persons hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction.
White men consistently had the highest procedure rates, followed by white women, black men, and black women. After matching for the hospital of admission and adjusting for age, in-hospital mortality, health insurance, and hospital transfer rates (with white men as the referent), the odds ratios for cardiac catheterization were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.87) for black men, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.83) for white women, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.68) for black women. Similar race-sex differences were noted for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery.
Race and sex differentials in the rates of invasive cardiac procedures remained despite matching for the hospital of admission and controlling for other factors that influence procedure rates, suggesting that the race and sex of the patient influence the use of these procedures.
- SourceAvailable from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of race and gender influence on the use of invasive procedures in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in community hospitals.DESIGN: Prospective, observational.SETTING: Five mid-Michigan community hospitals.PATIENTS: All patients (838) identified with AMI between January 1994 and April 1995 in 1 of these hospitals.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After adjusting for age, hospital of admission, insurance type, severity of AMI, and comorbidity, using white men as the reference group, the rate of being offered cardiac catheterization (CC) was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.60 to 1.29) for white women; 0.79 (95% CI, 0.41 to 1.50) for black men; and 1.14 (95% CI, 0.53 to 2.45)for black women. Among patients who underwent CC, after also adjusting for coronary artery anatomy, the rate of being offered angioplasty, using white men as the reference group, was 1.22 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.98) for white women; 0.61 (5% CI, 0.29 to 1.28, P = .192) for black men; and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.14 to 1.13) for black women The adjusted rate of being offered bypass surgery was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.89) for white women; 0.36 (95% CI, 0.12 to 1.06) for black men; and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.11 to 1.28)for black women.CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that white women are less likely than white men to be offered bypass surgery after AMI. Although black men and women with AMI are less likely than white men to be offered percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, these findings did not reach statistical significance. Our study is limited in power due to the small number of blacks in the sample.Journal of General Internal Medicine 12/2001; 16(4):227 - 234. · 3.28 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AIM: Few studies have examined the effects of various interventions in gastroparesis. The goal of the present study was to determine whether inpatient management and outcomes differed among states across the United States. METHODS: Using population statistics and the State Inpatient Database (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality), regional differences in admissions for gastroparesis, inpatient mortality, length of stay, nursing home transfers, and rates of endoscopy, gastrostomy placement, and nutritional support were assessed. RESULTS: Admissions for gastroparesis ranged from 24.3 ± 0.8/100,000 in Utah to 117.1 ± 9.7/100,000 in Maryland, with mortality rates similarly varying fourfold from 0.5 ± 0.1/100,000 in Colorado to 2.3 ± 0.1/100,000 in Florida. Intervention rates differed between states (endoscopy: 6.8 ± 0.8 % in Wyoming versus 23.1 ± 0.4 % in Florida; gastrostomy: 0.8 ± 0.1 % in North Carolina versus 3.3 ± 0.8 % in Hawaii; nutritional support: 1.2 ± 0.2 % in West Virginia versus 7.0 ± 0.6 % in New Jersey). Admissions rates were independently predicted by high overall hospitalizations within a state. Higher population density, median incomes and admissions to for-profit hospitals correlated with endoscopy rates. Coexisting heart failure and male gender were associated with higher likelihood of gastrostomy placement, while initiation of nutritional support was predicted by physician supply and insurance status. Age cohort, Medicare coverage, poverty rates and endoscopic testing independently predicted mortality, while length of stay correlated with diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant variability in admissions, interventions and outcomes for gastroparesis. While biological factors, such as comorbidities and age, contribute to this variability, the data suggest that socioeconomic variables significantly affect approaches to gastroparesis treatment in the United States.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 03/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Racial and ethnic minorities tend to receive a lower quality of healthcare than non-minorities, even when access-related factors, such as patients' insurance status and income, are controlled. The sources of these disparities are complex, are rooted in historic and contemporary inequities, and involve many participants at several levels, including health systems, their administrative and bureaucratic processes, utilization managers, healthcare professionals, and patients. Consistent with the charge, the study committee focused part of its analysis on the clinical encounter itself, and found evidence that stereotyping, biases, and uncertainty on the part of healthcare providers can all contribute to unequal treatment. The conditions in which many clinical encounters take place- characterized by high time pressure, cognitive complexity, and pressures for cost-containment—may enhance the likelihood that these processes will result in care poorly matched to minority patients' needs. Minorities may experience a range of other barriers to accessing care, even when insured at the same level as whites, including barriers of language, geography, and cultural familiarity. Further, financial and institutional arrangements of health systems, as well as the legal, regulatory, and policy environment in which they operate, may have disparate and negative effects on minorities' ability to attain quality care. A comprehensive, multi-level strategy is needed to eliminate these disparities. Broad sectors—including healthcare providers, their patients, payors, health plan purchasers, and society at large—should be made aware of the healthcare gap between racial and ethnic groups in the United