Race and sex differences in rates of invasive cardiac procedures in US hospitals. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey.
ABSTRACT Lower rates of invasive cardiac procedures have been reported for blacks and women than for white men. However, few studies have adjusted for differences in the type of hospital of admission, insurance status, and disease severity. SETTING, DESIGN, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey were used to investigate race and sex differences in rates of cardiac catheterization, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass surgery among 10,348 persons hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction.
White men consistently had the highest procedure rates, followed by white women, black men, and black women. After matching for the hospital of admission and adjusting for age, in-hospital mortality, health insurance, and hospital transfer rates (with white men as the referent), the odds ratios for cardiac catheterization were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.87) for black men, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.83) for white women, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.68) for black women. Similar race-sex differences were noted for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery.
Race and sex differentials in the rates of invasive cardiac procedures remained despite matching for the hospital of admission and controlling for other factors that influence procedure rates, suggesting that the race and sex of the patient influence the use of these procedures.
Article: Use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators for primary prevention in the community: do women and men equally meet trial enrollment criteria?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fewer women than men undergo implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The criteria used to select patients for ICD implantation may be more permissive among men than for women. We hypothesized that women who undergo primary prevention ICD implantation more often meet strict trial enrollment criteria for this therapy. We studied 59,812 patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD registry undergoing initial primary prevention ICD placement between January 2005 and April 2007. Patients were classified as meeting or not meeting enrollment criteria of either the MADIT-II or SCD-HeFT trials. Multivariable analyses assessed the association between gender and concordance with trial criteria adjusting for demographic, clinical, and system characteristics. Among the cohort, 27% (n = 16,072) were women. Overall, 85.2% of women and 84.5% of men met enrollment criteria of either trial (P = .05). In multivariable analyses, women were equally likely to meet trial criteria (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99-1.10) than men. Significantly more women than men met the trial enrollment criteria among patients older than age 65 (86.6% of women vs 85.3% of men, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19), but this difference was not found among younger patients (82.5% of women vs 83.0% of men, OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.07). In a national cohort undergoing primary prevention ICD implantation, older women were only slightly more likely then men to meet the enrollment criteria for MADIT II or SCD-HeFT. Relative overutilization in men is not an important explanation for gender differences in ICD implantation.American heart journal 09/2009; 158(2):224-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
Article: Differences in per capita rates of revascularization and in choice of revascularization procedure for eleven states.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A few studies have investigated differences in elective procedure rates across small and medium sized referral regions. The purposes of this study are to investigate differences in revascularizations across 11 entire states and to investigate differences in choice of revascularization procedure (percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) vs. coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery). Age-sex adjusted rates per 100,000 population who were 20 or older were calculated for PCI, CABG surgery, and total revascularization for each state. Also, the risk-adjusted proportion of revascularized patients who underwent PCI was calculated for each state and differences were compared. We found variations in procedures performed per capita of 1.83-fold for PCI, 1.54-fold for CABG surgery, and 1.54-fold for total revascularization. For patients undergoing revascularization of two or more vessels, the age/sex adjusted maximum rate of 224 per 100,000 population over 20 years old in Florida was 53% higher than the minimum rate of 146 in Colorado. Higher catheterization rates per 1,000 Medicare enrollees and higher percent of white patients were significant predictors of higher revascularization rates, and density of specialists was a significant predictor of catheterization rate. The risk-adjusted percentage of revascularized patients with two or more arteries attempted who underwent PCI ranged from 10.4% in Oregon to 29.0% in Iowa. There are reasonably large differences among states in total revascularization rates and in type of revascularization among revascularization. These differences appear to be related to practice pattern differences. Future effort should be devoted to understanding the reason for these differences and the impact on patients' health and survival.BMC Health Services Research 02/2006; 6:35. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early access to revascularization procedures is known to be related to a more favorable outcome in myocardial infarction (MI) patients, but access to specialized care varies widely amongst the population. We aim to test if the early gap found in the revascularization rates, according to distance between patients' location and the closest specialized cardiology center (SCC), remains on a long term basis. We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the Quebec's hospital discharge register (MED-ECHO). The study population includes all patients 25 years and older living in the province of Quebec, who were hospitalized for a MI in 1999 with a follow up time of one year after the index hospitalization. The main variable is revascularization (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass graft). The population is divided in four groups depending how close they are from a SCC (< 32 km, 32-64 km, 64-105 km and > or = 105 km). Revascularization rates are adjusted for age and sex. The study population includes 11,802 individuals, 66% are men. The one-year incidence rate of MI is 244 individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. At index hospitalization, a significant gap is found between patients living close (< 32 km) to a SCC and patients living farther (> or = 32 km). During the first year, a gap reduction can be observed but only for patients living at an intermediate distance from the specialized center (64-105 km). The gap observed in revascularization rates at the index hospitalization for MI is in favour of patients living closer (< 32 km) to a SCC. This gap remains unchanged over the first year after an MI except for patients living between 64 and 105 km, where a closing of the gap can be noticed.BMC Public Health 01/2006; 6:60. · 2.00 Impact Factor