A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group.
ABSTRACT Cryptococcal meningitis and other serious fungal infections are common complications in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Fluconazole is effective for long-term suppression of many fungal infections, but its effectiveness as primary prophylaxis had not been adequately evaluated.
We conducted a prospective, randomized trial that compared fluconazole (200 mg per day) with clotrimazole troches (10 mg taken five times daily) in patients who were also participating in a randomized trial of primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
After a median follow-up of 35 months, invasive fungal infections had developed in 4.1 percent of the patients in the fluconazole group (9 of 217) and in 10.9 percent of those in the clotrimazole group (23 of 211; relative hazard, as adjusted for the CD4+ count, 3.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 7.6). Of the 32 invasive fungal infections, 17 were cryptococcosis (2 in the fluconazole group and 15 in the clotrimazole group; adjusted relative hazard, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 37.6). The benefit of fluconazole was greater for the patients with 50 or fewer CD4+ cells per cubic millimeter than for the patients with higher counts. Fluconazole was also effective in preventing esophageal candidiasis (adjusted relative hazard, 5.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 20.0; P = 0.004) and confirmed and presumed oropharyngeal candidiasis (5.7 and 38.1 cases per 100 years of follow-up in the fluconazole and clotrimazole groups, respectively; P < 0.001). Survival was similar in the two groups.
Fluconazole taken prophylactically reduces the frequency of cryptococcosis, esophageal candidiasis, and superficial fungal infections in HIV-infected patients, especially those with 50 or fewer CD4+ lymphocytes per cubic millimeter, but the drug does not reduce overall mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Resistance to fluconazole is a possible event during prolonged suppressive drug therapy for cryptococ-cal meningitis, the most frequently encountered life-threatening manifestation of cryptococcosis. The knowledge of this resistance at the molecular level is important for management of cryptococcosis. In order to identify genes involved in azole resistance in Cryptococcus neoformans, a cDNA subtraction library technique was chosen as a strategy. First, a fluconazole-resistant mutant BPY22.17 was obtained from a susceptible clinical isolate BPY22 by in vitro exposure to the drug. Then, a subtractive hybridization procedure was used to compare gene expression between the obtained strains. We identified a cDNA overexpressed in the fluconazole-resistant strain BPY22.17 that was used as a probe to isolate the entire gene in a C. neoformans genomic library. Sequence analysis of this gene identified an ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter-encoding gene called C. neoformans AntiFungal Resistance 1 (CnAFR1). Disruption of CnAFR1 gene in the resistant isolate (BPY22.17) resulted in an enhanced susceptibility of the knock-out mutant cnafr1 against fluconazole, whereas reintroduction of the gene in cnafr1 resulted in restoration of the resistance phenotype, thus confirming that CnAFR1 is involved in fluconazole resistance of C. neoformans. Our findings therefore reveal that an active drug efflux mechanism can be involved in the development of azole resistance in this important human pathogen.Molecular Microbiology 02/2003; 47(2):357-71. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03281.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
- Western Journal of Medicine 165(1-2):67-73.