Cryptococcal meningitis and other serious fungal infections are common complications in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Fluconazole is effective for long-term suppression of many fungal infections, but its effectiveness as primary prophylaxis had not been adequately evaluated.
We conducted a prospective, randomized trial that compared fluconazole (200 mg per day) with clotrimazole troches (10 mg taken five times daily) in patients who were also participating in a randomized trial of primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
After a median follow-up of 35 months, invasive fungal infections had developed in 4.1 percent of the patients in the fluconazole group (9 of 217) and in 10.9 percent of those in the clotrimazole group (23 of 211; relative hazard, as adjusted for the CD4+ count, 3.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 7.6). Of the 32 invasive fungal infections, 17 were cryptococcosis (2 in the fluconazole group and 15 in the clotrimazole group; adjusted relative hazard, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 37.6). The benefit of fluconazole was greater for the patients with 50 or fewer CD4+ cells per cubic millimeter than for the patients with higher counts. Fluconazole was also effective in preventing esophageal candidiasis (adjusted relative hazard, 5.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 20.0; P = 0.004) and confirmed and presumed oropharyngeal candidiasis (5.7 and 38.1 cases per 100 years of follow-up in the fluconazole and clotrimazole groups, respectively; P < 0.001). Survival was similar in the two groups.
Fluconazole taken prophylactically reduces the frequency of cryptococcosis, esophageal candidiasis, and superficial fungal infections in HIV-infected patients, especially those with 50 or fewer CD4+ lymphocytes per cubic millimeter, but the drug does not reduce overall mortality.
"Powderly et al compared fluconazole 200 mg/day and clotrimazole troches 10 mg five-times/day prophylactically in HIV-positive patients.83 Overall, fluconazole reduced the frequency of MC, superficial fungal infections, and cryptococcal disease when compared to clotrimazole.83 The benefit was greatest in patients with less than 50 CD4+ T cells/mm3. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the first signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole) and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole) have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin) in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE) is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin).
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care 04/2010; 2:89-101.
"Levels of CnAFR1 mRNA were determined by quantification of chemiluminescence signals by Fluor-S MAX 2 (Bio-Rad) and normalized to those obtained with the ACT1 probe (bottom). phylactic or suppressive therapeutic agent for the management of cryptococcosis (Perfect, 1993; Ammassari et al., 1995; Powderly et al., 1995; Friese et al., 2001). In the meantime, the knowledge of the molecular basis of this resistance could lead us to understand the failures and relapses with which clinicians are faced during the treatment of cryptococcosis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to fluconazole is a possible event during prolonged suppressive drug therapy for cryptococ-cal meningitis, the most frequently encountered life-threatening manifestation of cryptococcosis. The knowledge of this resistance at the molecular level is important for management of cryptococcosis. In order to identify genes involved in azole resistance in Cryptococcus neoformans, a cDNA subtraction library technique was chosen as a strategy. First, a fluconazole-resistant mutant BPY22.17 was obtained from a susceptible clinical isolate BPY22 by in vitro exposure to the drug. Then, a subtractive hybridization procedure was used to compare gene expression between the obtained strains. We identified a cDNA overexpressed in the fluconazole-resistant strain BPY22.17 that was used as a probe to isolate the entire gene in a C. neoformans genomic library. Sequence analysis of this gene identified an ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter-encoding gene called C. neoformans AntiFungal Resistance 1 (CnAFR1). Disruption of CnAFR1 gene in the resistant isolate (BPY22.17) resulted in an enhanced susceptibility of the knock-out mutant cnafr1 against fluconazole, whereas reintroduction of the gene in cnafr1 resulted in restoration of the resistance phenotype, thus confirming that CnAFR1 is involved in fluconazole resistance of C. neoformans. Our findings therefore reveal that an active drug efflux mechanism can be involved in the development of azole resistance in this important human pathogen.
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